Humans, animals and plants are more than ever being exposed to chemicals through their environment, in both urban and agricultural areas. Even before birth, through maternal exposome and its cumulative effects, we are being exposed to various chemicals found in air, water, soil and food. The ecotoxicological environment plays a crucial role in determining human biological variation of interest to anthropologists, as well as affecting our quality of life, health, disease, reproduction and longevity. One of the best known concepts in explaining the effect of toxicological burden in development of complex diseases (such as metabolic syndrome) is endocrine disruption. Therefore, the aim of this panel is to discuss new developments in detecting toxicological burden (i.e. analytical chemistry in anthropology) and its consequential use to understand modern sources of human biological variation, and in shaping the future of early disease prevention strategies. Using an interdisciplinary anthropological approach, analytical chemistry takes advantage of the vast array of instrumental methods of chemical analysis (organic, inorganic, as well as stable isotope analysis) providing additional information to enrich anthropological knowledge on a variety of subjects - for example, nutritional and other habits, environmental exposure to various chemical compounds or elements, analysis of disease and skeletal trauma on archeological skeletal remains, population studies, proteomic and metabolomics analyses etc. This panel is also aiming at promoting analytical chemistry as an integral part of an interdisciplinary anthropological approach.