#03 Public Policies and Old Age in Brazilian Context

Guita Grin Debert from BR (ggdebert@uol.com.br) (Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP))



Abstract

Abstract title

Public Policies and Old Age in Brazilian Context

Abstract text

The research explores the meanings of the family in its relation with dependence in old age, in contexts where neoliberalism and new forms of conservatism are gaining increasing political strength. Based on the Brazilian case, the objective is to show the new roles and meanings that the family and kinship relationships assume when the care of dependent elderly people becomes a political issue and how specific social groups of independent adults plan their future and plan ways to combat dependence perceived as a natural consequence of longevity. The focus is on content analysis of public policies for the elderly population, especially those proposed by Brazilian state agencies and by the Council for Elderly Rights in the State of São Paulo, during the year 2018-9. The paper combines the presentation of these policies with an ethnographic account carried out with a group of students with a high level of functional autonomy from a University for the Third Age. The central point of the account is the way these students plan their future. The objective is to show, on the one hand, how in public policies the family gains different meanings when the emphasis is on the relationship between genders or when the emphasis is on the relationship between generations. On the other hand, to show the differences in the way men and women conceive ways of dealing with dependent old age.

Conference topic

Panel no. 63 - Coming of (Old) Age on Earth: Imagining Our Aging Future

Preferred format

Oral



#04 TOWARDS AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF ENCOUNTERS: INSIGHTS FROM THE AUSTRO-ARAB ENCOUNTER

Leonardo Schiocchet from AT (schiocchet@gmail.com) (Austrian Academy of Sciences)



Abstract

Abstract title

TOWARDS AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF ENCOUNTERS: INSIGHTS FROM THE AUSTRO-ARAB ENCOUNTER

Abstract text

This address aims to unpack the potential we see in the encounter perspective, which I have been developing as anthropological framework since 2015. In the same year, large numbers of forced migrants mostly from the Middle East arrived in Europe, many passing through, and others remaining in Austria. The summer of 2015, also known as the “Summer of Migration”, is when the meeting between these refugees and the Austrian context intensified and became a point of inflection, highlighting the asymmetries between refugees and European citizens, and between Europe and the Arab Middle East. Yet, despite the specificity of my own motivations to engage with the term, I understand the encounter as potentially much broader. The Austro-Arab Encounter project (AUSARAB in short), was born from insights gained mostly from my past fieldwork among Arab refugees in the Middle East, Latin America, and Denmark, from the Austro-Palestinian Encounter project, and from further fieldwork in which I have engaged with this fairly recent shock-encounter between Middle Eastern refugees and the Austrian context, especially through the Refugee Outreach & Research Network (ROR-n). But in AUSARAB, refugees are but one among many other social actors involved. This presentation defines the concept of encounter and highlights a few key issues to be taken as elements of analysis when considering this type of social situation.

Conference topic

Panel no. 08 - Middle Eastern Encounters

Preferred format

Oral



#06 Maternal Absence and Transnational Female Labour Migration; implications for Mothering

saleh seid adem from ET (saleh.seid@amu.edu.et) (arba minch university)



Abstract

Abstract title

Maternal Absence and Transnational Female Labour Migration; implications for Mothering

Abstract text

Migration of family members produces transnational practices and multisite lifestyle configurations. This study is sets in the context of transnational labour migration from Ethiopia to the Arabian Peninsula. The ethnographic fieldwork was carried out in two rural villages using in-depth interviews with children and their caregivers and group discussions with members of the community. Transnational mothering and other mothering emerge as new practices of mothering in the rural villages due to maternal absence. Remittances, communication technologies and care by female kin members who stayed behind are identified as the mechanisms by which the new practices of mothering are performed. Both cases of mothering have interrelated implications and meanings. However, the rigidity of sending societies’ norms related to mothering and gendered labour dynamics makes it difficult to redefine mothering. The findings of this study refute the notion that labels mother’s out-migration as ‘abandoning children’, ‘disrupting families’ and ‘acts of selfishness.’

Conference topic

Panel no. 75 - Legacies and Next Generation Parenting

Preferred format

Oral



#08 Reflections on Doing Ethnolinguistic Vitality Survey: Issues and Concerns

Melvin Allena Jabar from PH (melvin.jabar@dlsu.edu.ph) (De La Salle University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Reflections on Doing Ethnolinguistic Vitality Survey: Issues and Concerns

Abstract text

This reflexive account talks about my experience doing ethnolinguistic vitality survey and language documentation of an indigenous language in the Philippines called the Hanunuo Mangyan. This is the language widely spoken among the ethnolinguistic group of the Hanunuo Mangyan in Oriental Mindoro. While oral language is still very vibrant, the written scripts of their language has already been forgotten for generations. Our project was conceptualized in 2016 but finally took off in 2018 due to bureaucratic processes of the government and the internal issues that have to be settled among the Hanunuo Mangyan communities. During the entire research, our team came across a lot of issues. First, seeking informed consent from the government took 2 years owing to institutional or if not cultural lag. Second, the members of the indigenous group were not keen in making their language available online as a language documentation for fear that other people might use it for personal financial gains. Hence, the smart phone-based dictionary will only be for the community's use. Third, and the most crucial of all, is the question of ownership of a language. In one of the community consultation we had , the elders were hesitant to make their language public due to ownership issues. Hence, as a researcher, I realized that struggles for language ownership is real for the minority. This presentation will present my own reflections regarding this research experience and see where I stand in all the struggles that we have to come into terms with.

Conference topic

Panel no. 98 - Doing Anthropology: Locating the Self In/Through the Field

Preferred format

Oral



#09 The Non-Patrilocal European Neolithic: A Critique of Interpretation in aDNA and Isotope Research

Bradley E Ensor from US (bensor@emich.edu) (Eastern Michigan University)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Non-Patrilocal European Neolithic: A Critique of Interpretation in aDNA and Isotope Research

Abstract text

Recent aDNA and Sr isotope ratio research has significantly advanced the modeling of ancient gene flow, migrations, and kinship but often lacks ethnologically-informed guidance for interpretation. This paper critically examines the now widely-accepted interpretation of patrilocality for the European Neolithic (beginning ~6500 BP). Apart from sampling and other issues, problems in the literature concluding patrilocality include confusing residence with burial location, results that equally support alternatives, results that are actually incompatible with patrilocality, and reliance on ethnologically-rejected assumptions to buttress interpretation. Though variation can be demonstrated across Europe, bilocality combined with bilateral descent better fits the results reported in several Central European studies and is independently supported by archaeological LBK community patterns. Implications on social dynamics, agri-pastoral expansion, and broader theory are discussed.

Conference topic

Panel no. 53 - The Human Legacy of Kinship

Preferred format

Oral



#10 Indigenous Healing Ways and Intellectual Property Rights: Cross-cultural Perspectives on Effective Integration

Ravinder Singh from IN (medicalanthropology.ihbas@gmail.com) (IHBAS Hospital, Dilshad garden, Delhi-110095)



Abstract

Abstract title

Indigenous Healing Ways and Intellectual Property Rights: Cross-cultural Perspectives on Effective Integration

Abstract text

Illnesses and associated psychosocial disabilities are real problems. They are the source of considerable morbidity and impose a significant burden on human resources. There are few population-level insights into the use of traditional healers and other forms of alternative care for the treatment of common physical and mental disorders in our country as well as in South Asian and sub-Saharan African countries. It is examined in this paper that extent to which alternative practitioners, traditional healers, are consulted, and predictors of traditional healer visits for various diseases. Further paper illuminates the studies in different countries Australia, Africa, Canada, New Zeeland and USA on tribal communities and the role of traditional healers in these countries. Traditional healers mostly are consulted followed by religious or spiritual advisor or gurus. Moreover they are being inducted in modern medicine. Alternative practitioners, including traditional healers and religious advisors, appear to play an important role in the delivery of health care in tribal and rural communities. These healers play a significant role in ensuring health but they are not officially encouraged to be the part of health services. There are laws promoting traditional healing in the most of the African countries. The integration of indigenous healers and their medicines into the main stream of modern medicine can reduce the burden as well as it can strengthen various issues of Nation Building. The experiences of some the countries-Australia, Africa, Canada, New Zeeland and USA can give us lesson about how best we can accommodate these healers and their healing to reduce modern problems. Their services should be governed by the Intellectual property rights of these healers which is central idea of the paper. Key Words: Traditional Healers, Healing Illness, IPR

Conference topic

Panel no. 77 - Health Transition in Modern Societies

Preferred format

Oral



#12 Indigenous Healing Practice: An Ethnographic Study On Mankirdia Tribe of Odisha

ALOK KUMAR PATRA from IN (patrajnu.87@gmail.com) (Jawaharlal Nehru University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Indigenous Healing Practice: An Ethnographic Study On Mankirdia Tribe of Odisha

Abstract text

Traditional Medicine plays a significant role in the health care needs of tribal people..Mankirdia tribe is one of the Particular Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG), known for its rich traditional knowledge. They use their own traditional healing sources to addresses different disease; and transform that generic source to their future generation. They have large quantum of indigenous knowledge resources from diverse field. For instance the role of emotional condition holds much more importance for Mankirdia people than a physiological pain; and their cultural foundation inclines them to keep faith on socio-cultural realities, which is based on socio-religious, supernatural and material, immaterial objects. There are three dominate types of healers actively working in the Mankirdia community. The most respected healers among the Mankirdia are (Ojha) herbalist, religious healer (Dirhi) and the spiritual healer Mati or shaman. It was observed that herbalist healers and spiritual healer have good social recognition and trust among the community members It concluded that Mankirdia tribes have strong faith on socio-religious, supernatural realm and extensively used various herbal, medicine for preventing, curative and rehabilitative purposes. And also use the modern health care practice in different health issues. Although they have faith on their own system of medicine; furthermore they use the alternative system of medicine as per the desire and demand. It shows the Mankirdia’s rationality over choices they have made for treatment. The important cause of their use of traditional medicine is affordability, accessibility and availability of the medicine. And their strong socio-cultural believes system over indigenous medical approach.

Conference topic

Panel no. 58 - Coming of Age for the Traditional Medicine System of Indigenous Populations: Is Connecting the Unconnected the Way Forward?

Preferred format

Oral



#14 HUEHUES, MASKS AND PRINCESSES. LOOK THROUGH A RITUAL AND THE INCLUSION PROCESS

Jorge Arturo Mirabal Venegas from MX (nawatti@live.com.mx) (Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro)



Abstract

Abstract title

HUEHUES, MASKS AND PRINCESSES. LOOK THROUGH A RITUAL AND THE INCLUSION PROCESS

Abstract text

This paper addresses from the anthropology, the elements of transformation in the feast of the day of the dead among the Nahuas of central Mexico, more specifically of the Huasteca region in San Luis Potosí. Three ethnographic contexts are portrayed in which you can observe the transformations that have generated migration, globalization and the national economy in an ancestral ritual such as the day of the dead. In the present investigation, the old elements that continue to prevail during the holiday will be noted, as well as the new elements that have been incorporated and are a clear example of the social, political and inclusion transformations that are being experienced in the region. This is how the present study shows the deconstructions of the concept of man and woman and the inclusion of sexual diversity in the party as is the case of Miss Xantolo, where a man wins a contest in which he is represented as a woman masked that exalts the symbols of the party. Likewise, the undressing of the huehues, one of the oldest phases of the local day of the dead where only men participate and the woman is completely relegated.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#15 Barber Queen

ISIL KARATAS from AT (isil.karatas@univie.ac.at) (University of Vienna) , Joyce Stefanova from NL (isil.karatas@univie.ac.at) (Erasmus University Rotterdam) , Pia Bühler from DE (isil.karatas@univie.ac.at) (University of Münster) , Viktoria Kostova from BG (isil.karatas@univie.ac.at) (Sofia)



Abstract

Abstract title

Barber Queen

Abstract text

BARBER QUEEN is a synesthetic experience, which takes the audience to the hypersensitive world of various delicate changes of the self, illuminating the intimate stories of five different individuals who are undergoing visual transformations. The stories are intertwined and therefore all the scenes are combined into a series of close-ups metaphorically implying the experiencing of various sensations, emotions, and feelings, creating a playful dialogue between all participants. The sensory journey through their lives starts with the beginning of their personal transformational routines, which are much closer to individual rituals than to random acts of solely putting on makeup or cutting one´s hair, and follows them until the end when their new look can be seen, and their new identity can be introduced. BARBER QUEEN is not just a film but a visual exploration of the fluctuations of the contemporary identity.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#16 The Development of Chinese Anthropology and Its Future Outlook

Gang Chen from CN (jamesgchen@qq.com) (Yunnan University of Finance and Economics)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Development of Chinese Anthropology and Its Future Outlook

Abstract text

Anthropology was introduced to China at the beginning of the 20th century, along with other Western social sciences such as sociology and Western ideas such as Marxism. Western anthropology came to China. However, in the early years of 1950s, anthropology was regarded as bourgeois discipline in capitalist countries, and was removed as an academic discipline in universities in China. It was then replaced by ethnology. In 1978, China opened up again to the Western world. Anthropology was revived as an academic discipline in the late 1980s. Since then, Chinese anthropology has undergone tremendous development. This paper will explore the historical development of Chinese anthropology, and discuss its current situation and future outlook.

Conference topic

Panel no. 89 - Rethinking East Asian Anthropologies in Historical Perspective

Preferred format

Oral



#17 Narratives of coastal heritage in the context of Brexit, UK

Maria Abranches from GB (m.abranches@uea.ac.uk) (University of East Anglia)



Abstract

Abstract title

Narratives of coastal heritage in the context of Brexit, UK

Abstract text

This paper is based on an ongoing international research project on the transformation of coastal areas and related impact on the wellbeing of fishing communities. It draws on a specific UK case study – the coastal town of Great Yarmouth, in the East of England – and on life history interviews conducted with different generations of former fishing families. Having experienced the end of the fishing industry in the 1960s, alongside a decline in the town’s prosperity, these families present a narrative of loss and nostalgia, while also being active in the (re)making of the local landscape. In this paper, I examine, first, the role these families play in heritage-making, by exploring their own perceptions, experiences and aspirations in relation to heritage. Second, I contextualise these narratives within the current Brexit-related political, social and economic uncertainty about the future, especially significant in a Borough that – with 71.5% of voters choosing to leave the EU and 28.5% choosing to remain – had the 5th highest proportion of Leave supporters in the 2016 referendum. I explore the influence this particular context may have in people’s heritage-making practices and the interplay between these, nationalist defensive views and perceptions of migration, where memories of old places and familiar living environments coexist with new and transformed landscapes in complex ways.

Conference topic

Panel no. 95 - The Tides of Change: Living Off and With Heritage on the Coast

Preferred format

Oral



#18 Calcio Storico fiorentino. Enacting Florentine “identity”, reanimating Florentine history and reclaiming Florence’s cultural heritage

Dario Nardini from IT (d.nardini@campus.unimib.it) (University of Florence)



Abstract

Abstract title

Calcio Storico fiorentino. Enacting Florentine “identity”, reanimating Florentine history and reclaiming Florence’s cultural heritage

Abstract text

Calcio Storico (CS) is the reenactment of an emblematic episode in the history of Florence, when in 1530 residents showed bravery playing the traditional Carnival “calcio” match in front of the besieging troops of Charles V. Current celebrations comprise a military parade in Renaissance costumes (Corteo) and a “calcio” tournament, in which four teams representing the historic districts of Florence confront in a radically rough ball game consisting of a composite set of contact/combat sports. From its “reinvention” in 1930 with the support of the Fascist leaders, CS has been representing a contested field for the expression and definition of masculinity and “imagined” Florentine identities, and an expedient piece of heritage for diverse social and political purposes. After WWII, CS was reintroduced in the city to promote tourism in a time of economic and political restoration. In recent years, however, the neoliberal commodification of Florence’s cultural heritage has changed the social conformation of the city and forced residents to move from the center to peripheral areas. CS has consequently become for participants a way of resisting the touristic “invasion” of the(ir) city – precisely, the most representative part of their city, the patrimonialized Historic Center where CS is performed. Through the logic and rhetoric of reenactment, “calcio” and Corteo represent now articulate, twofold ways of feeling “Florentine”. Taking part to the festival and (re)enacting history, calcianti (“calcio” players) and Corteo’s characters consistently reanimate Florentine boldness, pride and “identity”, and claim a part in Florence’s celebrated history and cultural heritage.

Conference topic

Panel no. 02 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#20 How Rocha's anthropological cinema reflects on the relations of affection in the political and cultural process of a colonized country

Irma Viana Silva from BR (irmaviana537@gmail.com) (UFBA)



Abstract

Abstract title

How Rocha's anthropological cinema reflects on the relations of affection in the political and cultural process of a colonized country

Abstract text

The film Entranced Earth, which tells the political-allegorical history of Brazil, in the form of a long poem, by Paulo Martins, political journalist and passionate and agonizing Poet, represents, in the Glauberian trajectory, another attempt to put into (cinematographic) practice his “decolonizing” revolutionary art, theoretically established in the manifesto Aesthetics of Hunger, presented at the International Congress in Genova, Italy, in 1965. Written in conjunction with a broad debate about the national liberation of the colonized peoples of Latin America and Africa, the manifesto of the New Cinema makes explicit reference to the work “The Condemned of the Earth”, by Fanon (2005), for whom “violence” is the founding link of colonialism. “Violence”, being the substratum of the colonizer-colonized interaction, would also be the dialectical expression of the revolt of the oppressed as well as the form of affection and disaffection between colonizers and colonized. Glauber Rocha aimed, in his theoretical and practical Manifestos to affirm cultural and sentimental principles combating the culture of the colonizer. “An aesthetics of hunger is necessarily an aesthetic of violence” that "before being primitive", as the European sees Brazilian and Latin American art, is "revolutionary" and, in the Glauberian view, the only transforming force since it is not associated with “hate”, neither with the “old humanism” of the colonizer, but with “love”, once the love that this violence contains is as brutal as the violence itself, because it is not a love of complacency or contemplation, but a love of action and transformation.

Conference topic

Panel no. 02 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#21 Ageing in the aftermath of EU’s “free mobility”. Migrants from Central- and Eastern European (CEE) countries in Sweden.

Katarzyna Wolanik Boström from SE (katarzyna.wolanik.bostrom@umu.se) (Umea university) , Maarja Saar from SE (maarja.saar@sh.se) (Sodertorn university)



Abstract

Abstract title

Ageing in the aftermath of EU’s “free mobility”. Migrants from Central- and Eastern European (CEE) countries in Sweden.

Abstract text

EU migrants in Sweden have been considered a non-problematic group, as “free moving”, taking care of their welfare with paid labour, and eventually returning to their home countries. However, many migrants from EU countries develop strong bonds to Sweden and as they are ageing here, they face conditions where their “free mobility” as well as their agency get curtailed. Among the ageing EU migrants, those from CEE countries are the most vulnerable. There is often a striking difference between pensions in their home countries and in Sweden, which results in significantly lower pension payments, especially for women, which may cause housing problems and reliance on transnational informal care from relatives. Their practices of heightened mobility – e.g. health- or family-related, and often dependent on cheap flights – is not supported by the sedentary expectations of need-based benefits in Sweden. They may also meet stereotypes relating to former “Eastern Europeans”, "social dumping", etc. In our presentation, we discuss a pilot study on the interconnection between social protection, strategies for welfare and a “good life” for ageing migrants in Sweden originating from CEE countries. It is based on interviews with migrants aged 55-75, i.e. in a phase of transition between the expectations of being agentic and highly mobile towards more economically and health related vulnerability. From an intersectional perspective, this project will investigate the different challenges they encounter in the aftermath of EU free mobility, and the strategies they apply to manage their welfare and to sustain a good life.

Conference topic

Panel no. 35 - Time, (Im)Mobility and Vulnerability

Preferred format

Oral



#22 Policy making and policy implementation on the margins of the Ukrainian state

Oleksandra Tarkhanova from DE (tarhanovaa@gmail.com) (Bielefeld University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Policy making and policy implementation on the margins of the Ukrainian state

Abstract text

The war in Eastern Ukraine created a stable contact line between the so-called Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics and the rest of Ukraine, which is governed by a range of policies, put in practise by state officials in welfare offices and at checkpoints. Under the conditions of the military conflict, nationalist mobilisation, and socio-economic crisis, the issue of citizens’ access to social rights along the military contact line becomes contested on the level of national and local politics. In this paper, I will briefly present the results of policy discourse analysis focused on how state actors perceive the social rights of IDPs and citizens who cross the conflict line to access services (Bacchi 2009; Ball 1993). What is not tackled in literature yet, and what I would like to address in this paper is how the questions of belonging, recognition, and citizenship are negotiated and enacted at the level of interaction between welfare workers and people who cross the contact line regularly in order to access some form of social provision, assistance, or services. The method of policy ethnography might be the most fitting approach to engage with practises of policy implementation as spaces of negotiations in the context of normative and ideological contestations (Shore & Wright 2005; Das & Poole 2004; Ferguson & Gupta 2002). In this paper, I would like to discuss the limitations and advantages of the anthropology of policy approach for my ethnographic and discursive research project.

Conference topic

Panel no. 21 - An Anthropology of Policy: Legacies and Future Challenges

Preferred format

Oral



#23 The impact of WWII on birth body size. The Polish evidence

Grażyna Liczbińska from PL (grazyna@amu.edu.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań) , Miroslav Králík from CZ (18313@muni.cz) (Masaryk University, Brno)



Abstract

Abstract title

The impact of WWII on birth body size. The Polish evidence

Abstract text

The aim of this paper is to determine whether exposure of pregnant women to stress caused by WWII negatively affected birth body size. Individual medical documents deposited in the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Clinic of Medical University, Poznań were used for this study (1934–1943; N= 7,058). Material was divided into two birth cohorts in relation to WWII: subjects born before WWII and those during it. Frequency for miscarriages, stillbirths, live births and neonatal deaths according to the period of birth and sex of a child were tested with the use of the chi-square test. Statistically significant differences in the average birth weights, birth lengths and BMI between periods according to sex and maternal SES factors (marital status, her place of residence and the number of previous pregnancies) were calculated. Differences in the fraction of miscarriages, stillbirths, neonatal deaths were observed between WWII and the pre-war periods. Children born from the war cohort were heavier and longer than those born before it. When comparing before and during WWII periods separately for each gestation month, the results are as follows: lower birth weight for each month during WWII than before it. The war newborns might have been heavier than the pre-war ones due to longer (although not recorded) gestation. Moreover, adverse conditions of WWII could lead to greater elimination of males during pregnancy and shortly after delivery. This study is a part of the project of The Polish National Agency for Academic Exchange (NAWA) (PPN/WYM/2018/1/00099).

Conference topic

Panel no. 14 - Environmental Stress Impact on Human Biology, Health Status and Demography

Preferred format

Oral



#24 History of Medicine Syllabi and Medical Anthropology: An Experience from Croatia

Marija Raguž from HR (marija.raguz@mefos.hr) (Faculty of Medicine Osijek)



Abstract

Abstract title

History of Medicine Syllabi and Medical Anthropology: An Experience from Croatia

Abstract text

There are four medical schools in Croatia, all of which have a subject concerning history of medicine, each differently organised. It is taught mostly by medical experts and the accessible literature in Croatian on the subject is also written by medical experts. Syllabi are composed in such a way that they follow the major historical time periods. Judging by the literaure, medicine is seen as a timeline of events, mostly discoveries, which are to an extent seen in correlation to the characteristics of the period (science or religion, for example). Concepts developed by medical anthropology, mainly the concept of a medical system, have the potential to rearrange the view of medicine through time and space. Also, medical anthropology has the necessary tools to describe the changes in medical systems in a holistic way and as a result of many influences which are not currently being taken into consideration (human body and the health conditions of a certain era, for example). History of medicine does not take patients into account, just their health issues. Anthropological approach could enrich medical students with a new perspective of medicine, as something common to all cultures – with universal and specific characteristics, and provide knowledge on important influences concerning medical systems. Most importantly, it can give future medical experts the possibility to have a clearer vision of the human, not an ilness, standing on the opposite from them in the medical system, because they too have a role in medicine, not just their impared health.

Conference topic

Panel no. 60 - Anthropology as Education. Exploring Practices and Opportunities to Employ Anthropology in the Formation of the Citizens and the Professionals of the Future

Preferred format

Oral



#26 The Making Of(f) Living Labs

Merle Ibach from CH (merle.ibach@fhnw.ch) (Academy of Art and Design, Basel)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Making Of(f) Living Labs

Abstract text

Within the framework of design anthopology, the paper investigates the counter-practices of eco-social makerspaces in rural Germany. In reaction to the continuous urban densification in industrialised countries, new initiatives have been founded in the surrounding countrysides. The new rural communes conceive their socio-political environments as transformable and understand this as a call for empowerment and participation to challenge a future, that is all experienced as precarious. Their members, while being highly informed by urbanity, share a consciousness for a post material lifestyle. Forming out of shared value communities, a new phenomena of “living labs” arises. They are a kind of eco-social makerspace, which manage property (physical and virtual) cooperatively to develop alternative housing-, working- and organisation-models. The design principles are derived from a conception of natural, ecological processes and tend towards a profound affinity for radical reform patterns of behaviour and the development of new narratives. During an ethnographic field trip to north-east Germany, eleven initiatives were studied. Their activities were characterised by the following three criteria (1) sustainability: a distinctive eco-social consciousness and readiness to act, (2) digitalisation: digital infrastructures as a fundamental component of the project and (3) laboratory: experimenting as the central idea of collective action. Rather than the widespread use of design as a strategic problem solver, an open and unbiased experimentation with daily practices takes place. This mundane experimenting indicates a tactical practice instead, that asks for the epistemic meaning that is assigned to the notion of design as a participatory and situated practice.

Conference topic

Panel no. 06 - Feminist-inspired Activist Imaginaries for Making Change: Social Making Legacies and Methodological Framings

Preferred format

Oral



#27 Situating Traditional and Modern Reproductive Healthcare within the Contemporary Discourse on Public Health in Rural South India

Rajesh Gururaj Kundargi from IN (rgkundargi@gmail.com) (Pondicherry University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Situating Traditional and Modern Reproductive Healthcare within the Contemporary Discourse on Public Health in Rural South India

Abstract text

The age old cultural-temporal sequencing of the indigenous reproductive experiences of women is being severely altered by the compulsive intervention of various medical technologies of the day. The major driving force behind such a change is the overwhelming medicalization of the otherwise naturally occurring reproductive processes, resulting in new and impending healthcare contingencies on the part of people living at indigenous levels. Under these conditions, it becomes imperative on our part to first understand how people navigate the treatment seeking behaviour in achieving their reproductive goals. And during the course of such a health seeking behaviour people traverse three broad areas or fields of action and interaction that define their process of reproductive decision making. The three aspects of health sector that determine the reproductive health seeking behaviour are, (1) Popular Sector, consisting of families, social institutions, and women themselves. (2) Folk Sector, consisting of Ethnomedical or Traditional Healthcare Practitioners. (3) Professional Sector, consisting of organized or institutionalized Healthcare Systems. The present paper tries to signify the role of modern technologies in the development of discourse between medicalization on one side and the indigenous perceptions of women affected by reproductive contingencies on the other. In fine, the author tries to focus more on the interface between women and the care givers wherein they are more dependent on medicalization than traditional medicine, cutting across all the three sectors of healthcare mentioned above.

Conference topic

Panel no. 58 - Coming of Age for the Traditional Medicine System of Indigenous Populations: Is Connecting the Unconnected the Way Forward?

Preferred format

Oral



#28 Impact of MDGs on Reproductive Health of Women in Rural Bangladesh

Etsuko Matsuoka from JP (matsuokae1@gmail.com) (Nara Women's University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Impact of MDGs on Reproductive Health of Women in Rural Bangladesh

Abstract text

This presentation discusses the impact of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) , specifically MDG 5 which aims at reducing maternal mortality, on women’s health and birth experiences in rural Bangladesh. Bangladesh implemented policies which encourage hospital birth and the use of skilled birth attendants with the aim to achieve the target mortality of 143 by 2015. This presentation is based on a survey and interviews conducted in Madaripur District, 80 km southwest of Dhaka, in 2016-17. The survey included 512 households and demonstrates that extensive changes in birth practices have taken place since around 2005. Changes include increasing number of profit-oriented private hospitals/clinics for delivery, rising cesarean section rates and decreasing number of births at home assisted by traditional birth attendants. Women having hospital births or cesarean section had longer years of education and higher monthly income than those who didn’t. Women having hospital births or cesarean sections evaluated their birth experiences as bad compared with those having home births and vaginal deliveries. Pain was felt stronger by women delivered by doctors (63%) than those delivered by skilled birth attendants (36%). These findings suggest that ongoing medicalization of births does not lead to improvement of reproductive health of women, as rising cesarean section is a cause of future risk and is linked to women’s negative birth experiences. To conclude, policy implementation based on public health perspectives need to be complemented by sensitive and informed anthropological research that looks at women’s experiences and perspectives in local sociocultural settings.

Conference topic

Panel no. 92 - Anthropological Contribution in the Age of Global Health

Preferred format

Oral



#29 Were inequalities in trends of body size observed in Polish lands from the Prussian sector?

Oskar Nowak from PL (oskarn@amu.edu.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań) , Grażyna Liczbińska from PL (grazyna@amu.edu.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań) , Janusz Piontek from PL (piontek@amu.edu.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań)



Abstract

Abstract title

Were inequalities in trends of body size observed in Polish lands from the Prussian sector?

Abstract text

The aim of this study is twofold: first is to examine to what extent the following indicators of socio-economic status (SES): per capita income, consumption of meat, potatoes and sugar influenced the body size trends (height, weight, BMI) in populations from the Polish lands being a part of the Prussian partition, 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries; secondly to verify the occurrence of changes in the fraction of individuals classified as “tall” and “short” over time. The dataset was built on the basis of information derived from measuring cards containing anthropometric data (height and weight) and questionnaires of conscripts aged 20, born in the years 1860-1895 and conscripted to the Prussian army in the years 1880-1915. The second source of data were information on per capita income for the territories of western and northern Poland and information on the consumption of meat, fish, potatoes, wheat flour, rye flour, sugar in the Prussian Empire in 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890. The latter data were taken from literature. Means and standard deviations for body height, weight and BMIs in birth cohorts were calculated and their changes against the changes in meat, potato and flour consumption, and per capita income were demonstrated. In Wielkopolska and Pomerania, being in the 19th and early 20th centuries a part of Prussian sector, a breakthrough in nutrition was observed. Agricultural production was doubled at that time. All of them translated the increase in calorie consumption per person, and in the occurrence of the positive trends in body size.

Conference topic

Panel no. 14 - Environmental Stress Impact on Human Biology, Health Status and Demography

Preferred format

Oral



#30 Discussions on the category of refuge in Brazil

Igor José de Renó Machado from BR (igor@ufscar.br) (Federal University of Sao Carlos)



Abstract

Abstract title

Discussions on the category of refuge in Brazil

Abstract text

In this paper I analyze the definition and uses of the category "refuge" in Brazil to understand how it operates in legal terms on the one hand and in terms of the practice of everyday life on the other. I consider refuge to be a tense field of definitions that will impact the delimitation of other differences and political categories. In order to reach this goal, I turn to research on migration legislation in Brazil, which I have been developing since 2010, and a set of ethnographic research that is being developed under my coordination in the laboratory of migration studies of the Federal University of São Carlos on the experiences of refuge in Brazil. I intend to advance in an analysis of what I will call a "show of refuge" in Brazil, where the state and the media articulate certain definitions for refuge that tend to obscure the entire field of migration and producing a perverse effect of erasing migrations due to the prominence of the category of refuge.

Conference topic

Panel no. 108 - Refuge Refugees and Forced Migration

Preferred format

Oral



#31 "Worlds Without Borders" Neoliberalism and Geopolitics: Migratory Experiences of Spanish Youngsters

Priscilla Purtschert Baquerizo from EC (priscillapurtschert@gmail.com) (Utrecht University)



Abstract

Abstract title

"Worlds Without Borders" Neoliberalism and Geopolitics: Migratory Experiences of Spanish Youngsters

Abstract text

In a globalizing world, where neoliberalism has settled with strength, the way the Spanish youth understands its own migration trajectories responds, to a great extent, to the naturalization of geographical and political borders, as well as to the permeability of neoliberal discourses in everyday life. The current anthropological analysis draws on the experience of this youngsters who articulate their lives around migration in order to cope with nowadays contradictions and demands of the global processes in which they are imbricated. These type of migrations do not constitute the other-side-of forced and illegalized migrations, but together are part of a complex system that does not admit binarisms. Seeking to address the material and ideological conditions that make this migrations possible, this research chooses to refer to these displacements in terms of migration, and not of mobility. As it can potentially reduce the gap between what it means to be a migrant, and a global citizen. The latter has to do with the primacy of certain euphemisms when talking about the emigration of European citizens, strengthening the idea that the migrant, the illegal, the refugee, is the other.

Conference topic

Panel no. 33 - Imagining Europe - Fantasies Around Migration to Europe

Preferred format

Oral



#32 History of Japanese anthropological Mongolian studies from the beginning of 20th century

Takahiro Ozaki from JP (ozakit@leh.kagoshima-u.ac.jp) (Kagoshima University)



Abstract

Abstract title

History of Japanese anthropological Mongolian studies from the beginning of 20th century

Abstract text

In Japan, academic interest to Mongolia started from the latter half of 19th century. After Japan-Qing war (1894-95), some Inner Mongolian lords invited Japanese specialists for modernization. It made long term field research by Japanese anthropologists possible. For example, Torii Ryuzo, one of the pioneers of Japanese anthropology moved to Khalachin territory as advisor of education in 1906. Afterward, he conducted field survey in eastern Inner Mongolia, seeking a clue to origin of Japanese. More and more researches were carried out after 1930s, when some Japanese puppet regimes were established in Inner Mongolia. While the most representative local research institution was Northwest Research Institution established at Zhangjiakou in 1944, researchers from Japanese institutions also came to carry out anthropological field research there, focusing on ecology, religion, history and law for instance. When Japan was defeated in WWII, Japanese researchers were chased out of Inner Mongolia. Although some of them wrote articles after 1945, most of them changed their research field to other areas. Then, when People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, all of the Mongolian dwelling area belonged to socialist countries. This meant that anthropological research there became difficult. In fact, the next generation Japanese anthropological Mongolian researchers emerged as late as 1980s. Moreover, after Mongolia also became a feasible research field after 1990s, major research area for Japanese anthropological Mongolian studies shifted to Mongolia for some reasons. In consequences, today’s Japanese anthropological Mongolian researchers cannot help but recognize some discontinuities caused by war, socialism and other changes.

Conference topic

Panel no. 89 - Rethinking East Asian Anthropologies in Historical Perspective

Preferred format

Oral



#33 Let’s Eat Them Together’. Food procurement practices of domination and resistance in the city of Athens.

NAFSIKA PAPACHARALAMPOUS from GB (542550@SOAS.AC.UK) (SOAS)



Abstract

Abstract title

Let’s Eat Them Together’. Food procurement practices of domination and resistance in the city of Athens.

Abstract text

This paper discusses how food procurement practices at times of crisis become political acts. Athenian market spaces today are transforming and we witness the rising of everyday urban politics of negotiations, resistance and insurgency in unexpected class strata. More specifically, of the various grassroots solidarity initiatives in the city of Athens, this paper focuses on those relating to sourcing food. It presents an ethnography of the changing foodways in Athens-in-crisis. Using the concept of moral economy, it discusses the creation of no-middlemen markets in Athens, in which producers from all over Greece sell directly to Athenians. During the financial crisis of the mid-2010s, citizens assume responsibility for shorter foodways, as rural producers and urban consumers come together and reclaim part of the farm-to-table chain. This paper argues that by bringing producers and consumers together, no-middlemen markets reconnect rural and urban foodways and re-embed sociability in market spaces, providing a contrast to the abstractions of neoliberal politics and austerity for urban and rural populations alike. These urban moral economies also become the foundation for the re-affirmation of identity. To this end, food provides a particular angle from which to explore the complexities in the relations between politics and identity.

Conference topic

Panel no. 88 - Emerging Urban Political Subjectivities: Synergies, Tensions, Contradictions and Transformations in Pluralizing Cities

Preferred format

Oral



#34 Rivers as Entanglement of Natural, Supernatural and Infrastructural

Ketevan Gurchiani from GE (ketevan_gurchiani@iliauni.edu.ge) (Ilia State University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Rivers as Entanglement of Natural, Supernatural and Infrastructural

Abstract text

Focusing on the history of one river in Tbilisi, Vera the paper analyzes the relationship between technology/ infrastructure, nature, and humans. The infrastructure, as a product of modernity, is not solely confined to the boundaries of technologies. The special focus is the flood of Tbilisi on the 13th of June 2015. The times of crisis show how the non-human structures become embodiments of entanglement between human, natural and superhuman/religious. The infrastructural projects conceived as the breach from the old world of religious beliefs and projects of the rational, Soviet atheist modernity, emerge as sites where nature, technologies, and beliefs meet. The study is part of an ongoing project exploring Tbilisi as urban assemblage where human-nonhuman, infrastructure – nature, formal-informal, public-private, past - present are entangled and constitute each other. The project analyzes layers of architecture, infrastructure, and landscape and their multiple relations from the interdisciplinary perspective. The city in the 20th and 21st centuries is studied as an assemblage of changing attitudes towards nature and by the response of nature to manmade changes. The main methods include ethnography, interviews, archival research, anthropology of architecture, and computational analysis.

Conference topic

Panel no. 56 - Mobilities and Materialities: Body, Infrastructure, and Environment

Preferred format

Oral



#37 The turn to the right: perspectives and debates from the Brazilian Anthropology of Sports

Luiz Fernando Rojo from BR (luizrojo@predialnet.com.br) (Universidade Federal Fluminense)



Abstract

Abstract title

The turn to the right: perspectives and debates from the Brazilian Anthropology of Sports

Abstract text

Brazil, as well as some other countries in Latin America and the world, are passing through a turn to the extreme right not only in their governments, but in a conservative agenda too. In this paper, I will depart from some considerations about what I call the academic and political exclusion of sports from progressive agenda, discussing how sports was associated only to competitivity, colonialism, spectacularization, and manliness. At same time, as I discuss in the next topic, sports is also an arena where has been built resistance and visibility for work class and social groups generally excluded from the public agenda. After these debates, I will analyze the policies about sports implemented during the fourteen years of the democratic and popular governments of Luis Inacio Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff, trying to establish a connection between the advances and limitations of these policies and the theoretical references from the first part of this paper. To finish this paper, I will debate how this current turn to the right impacts on sportive agenda in all their dimensions, from the sport as leisure and educational activity to the high performance in world competitions.

Conference topic

Panel no. 12 - Anthropology of Sports in its Coming of Age

Preferred format

Oral



#38 Conflict, Policies-in-Process, and Policy Bundles: An anthropology of policy for challenging times

Sarah A. Robert from US (saraharobert@gmail.com) (University at Buffalo (SUNY-USA))



Abstract

Abstract title

Conflict, Policies-in-Process, and Policy Bundles: An anthropology of policy for challenging times

Abstract text

An anthropology of policy lens is needed to examine fast policy, particularly the "complex localization of global 'policies'" (Peck & Theodore, 2015, xxix) within a context of evolving authoritarianism and nationalism. The methodological might of an anthropology of policy lies with the potential to attend to the simple-though not simplistic-question of how policy 'works' in everyday socio-cultural (re-)production without overlooking policy as part and parcel of ideological and structural apparatuses of the political economy. While not all anthropology of policy research aims to decipher the agency-structure relationship or socio-cultural and political economic concerns, the focus here is on the ways such concerns can be developed methodologically toward theoretical contributions and why. First, conflict defines everyday experiences of policy around the world. Second, applied within public institutions, such as schools, the approach reveals the changed nature of policy processes as policies-in-process (e.g., there are always more than one policy being processed simultaneously) or policy bundles. In the tense and contentious politics of school-based governance and fast-paced decision making, stakeholders flip and spin policy bundles so that certain contents of the bundle are visible, shaping discourse, roles, and access to finite material and symbolic resources while hiding from view others that might yield different distributions of capital. Policies-in-process and bundles define the democratically-challenged, confrontational front-lines of public policymaking. An anthropology of policy continues to promise innovations necessary for engaged public intellectualism concerned with new forms of governance, changing relationships between politics and technocracy in democracies globally.

Conference topic

Panel no. 21 - An Anthropology of Policy: Legacies and Future Challenges

Preferred format

Oral



#40 Irun's Welcome Network: Refugees on the Basque Border

Margaret Louise Bullen from ES (maggie.bullen@ehu.eus) (University of the Basque Country)



Abstract

Abstract title

Irun's Welcome Network: Refugees on the Basque Border

Abstract text

This proposal gives account of the Welcome Network (Irungo Harrera Sarea) on the Basque border between Irun and Hendaye. This network, set up in 2018 in response to the flux of refugees arriving in the border town, attended over 3,000 people in 2019. Approximately 80% are men, with 10% women and 8% children or young people, travelling from Guinea Conakry, the Ivory Coast and Mali, as well as other African and Asian countries. The network functions through volunteer work groups: the "gautxori" (night bird) committee for night arrivals; reception and information, clothing, press and communications. The aim is to provide a dignified and efficient reception to refugees and, at the same time, put pressure on local authorities for their lack of response to the dire situation. Our research, initiated in spring 2019 is part of a wider project in the University of the Basque Country: “New solidarities, reciprocities and alliances. The emergence of collaborative spaces of political participation and redefinition of citizenship”. The main aim is to analyze the intersections between social movements working on the following themes: refugee and migrants, anti-racist and inclusive, feminist and GLTBI, ecologist, Basque cultural and linguistic. We are interested in the synergies between different movements, monitoring their management and in the redefinition of citizenship for those denied a legal status. In Irun, we are taking part in assemblies and work groups, carrying out participant observation and group and individual interviews and we are plotting how the network is expanding onto the French side.

Conference topic

Panel no. 108 - Refuge Refugees and Forced Migration

Preferred format

Oral



#41 Arab Encounters in a Malay-dominated religious scene

Zoltan Pall from AT (Zoltan.Pall@oeaw.ac.at) (Austrian Academy of Sciences)



Abstract

Abstract title

Arab Encounters in a Malay-dominated religious scene

Abstract text

After the Vietnamese withdrawal in 1989 the relative isolation of Cambodia from the outside world ended. The influx of NGOs and ideas transformed the landscape of the country’s Sunni Muslim minority which, according to various estimations, makes up 2-6% of the population. Cambodian Muslims traditionally have been leaning towards the Malay world due to historic connections. The main language of religious instructions has been Malay, and the dominant madhab is the Shafi’i. After the recent opening up of the country traditional educational and intellectual networks were re-established and expanded with Malaysia, South Thailand and to a lesser extend Indonesia. This dominance of the Malay oriented religious networks has recently been challenged by a new encounter. Linkages to the Arab world were established after charitable organizations from the Persian Gulf set foothold in Cambodia. Three decades of exchanges led to the emergence of a religious milieu in which Arabic changed the Malay as the language of religious instructions, and in which books from the Middle East are read. This paper examines how this “Arabized” scene emerged? Why Middle Eastern networks are attractive? It will show the dynamics of networks and movements linked to the Middle East through the biographies of two Cambodian Muslims involved in these networks in different ways. It will be argued that by successfully claiming authenticity in spreading religious discourses and providing quality education in Middle East linked boarding schools, actors of these network present an attractive balance of the sacred and the mundane.

Conference topic

Panel no. 08 - Middle Eastern Encounters

Preferred format

Oral



#43 Uncommons

Isabela Umbuzeiro Valent from BR (isabelavalent@usp.br) (Universidade de São Paulo)



Abstract

Abstract title

Uncommons

Abstract text

Created by a collaborative process, the movie pictures experiences from artistic and cultural collectives from São Paulo city by means of participants views and sensations. These collectives deal especially with art and culture, but also overflow to other iniciatives. The narrative reveals countless care and support networks that resist based on respecting others and their differences, constructing the “common”, accessing the city, and embracing everything that can be called uncommon. This is a collaborative production that is part of a PhD participant research carried out at the Interunit Aesthetics and Art History Postgraduate Program of the University of São Paulo (PGEHA-USP) held with 7 artistic and cultural collectives that produce health and coexistence in the city of São Paulo. The methods of research and creation were inspired by the concept of shared cine-anthropology (ROUCH, 1973) and public anthropology (FASSIN, 2013). The documentation reveals that the action of the Collectives weaves support networks that organize themselves autonomously beyond the institutional policies. They also make emerge care strategies to deal with cultural diversity and what is considered uncommon. This shared production of knowledge provided connections among the network and enriched its possibilities for dialogue and cooperation.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#44 Of bridges, connections, and flows: an ethnographic account of a Turkish-Brazilian encounter

Liza Dumovich Barros from BR (lizadumovich@gmail.com) (Center for the Middle East Studies/UFF)



Abstract

Abstract title

Of bridges, connections, and flows: an ethnographic account of a Turkish-Brazilian encounter

Abstract text

This paper aims at discussing how participants of the Hizmet Movement in Brazil mobilize social action in their endeavors to establish their community in the host country, and the effects that are produced during the process. The Hizmet Movement is a transnational Turkish-Islamic movement under the charismatic authority of the religious leader Fethullah Gülen. Although participants’ motivations and interests vary, being a Gülen’s follower means engaging with Gülen’s “civilizational” project, which includes emigrating from Turkey and forging their own hicret. In 2015, Hizmet participants had reached approximately 150 countries, including Brazil, where they form a community of around 300 members. In July 2016 Turkish President Erdogan accused Gülen of orchestrating the coup attempt in Turkey, taking measures that affected deeply the Movement politically, socially, and economically. Political persecution has caused many participants to flee from Turkey. Most of them, as well as those who migrated voluntarily before the coup are, since 2016, refugees or asylum seekers, including a few in Brazil. In an attempt to understand this Turkish-Brazilian encounter, this paper shows some of the discourses and practices performed by community members in their efforts towards engaging with Brazilian society, and focuses on members’ own interpretations and strategies for social action that are produced in this process. While community male representatives see Hizmet institutions as bridges between themselves and Brazilian society, women members mobilize other forms of connection with Brazilian individuals. In the process, flows of beliefs, ideas, and symbols permeate social relations and affect both sides of the encounter.

Conference topic

Panel no. 08 - Middle Eastern Encounters

Preferred format

Oral



#46 Educational Perspective on the Process of Modernizing Education for Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage: the Case Study on Qin Opera

takuya shimizu from JP (shimi-taku@mue.biglobe.ne.jp) (kansai university of international studies)



Abstract

Abstract title

Educational Perspective on the Process of Modernizing Education for Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage: the Case Study on Qin Opera

Abstract text

 The main purpose of this research is to contribute to the studies on cultural heritage by showing the merits of focusing on the process of educational modernization from educational perspective. While many researchers of cultural heritage are paying attention to impacts of transformation, studies on intangible cultural heritage need to be even more so because of its fragile nature of cultural transmission across generations. To study the dynamic interaction between cultural heritage, social change and development, this research will focus on a traditional theater called Qin opera in People’s Republic of China, the country that has undergone tremendous social transformations and rapid modernization process, to analyze how it has educationally modernized since around the foundation of PRC.  More specifically, this research will first propose the concept of “schoolnization” which can be defined generally as the processes of transformation from non-school-based educational forms like apprenticeship to modern schools to rationalize educational methods and organizations. The research will then apply the concept to analyze the process of educational modernization for Qin opera to illuminate its specific developmental patterns as well as the ways the opera’s different aspects have been categorized by the state institutions as transmissible ‘tradition’ or not. Finally, the research will show how the educational perspective (1) can provide important insights for proper protection of intangible cultural heritage by focusing in details on how and what have performers been learning, and (2) can provide a useful analytical framework to incorporate locals’ viewpoint that more theoretically integrate “modernization” into heritage studies.

Conference topic

Panel no. 25 - Looking for New Analytical Frameworks in the Study of Cultural Heritage and Modernization

Preferred format

Oral



#47 I point the contrast between the rationale of the neoliberal laws in Mexico concerning land and water and indigenous worldview

María Victoria Chenaut from MX (vchenaut@icloud.com) (CIESAS)



Abstract

Abstract title

I point the contrast between the rationale of the neoliberal laws in Mexico concerning land and water and indigenous worldview

Abstract text

The neoliberal laws in Mexico have paved the way for the privatisation and commodification of land and water. The new laws allow the companies involved to strip indigenous communities of their resources, when they deem it necessary. This paper points at the contrast between the rationale of these laws -notably the National Waters Law (1992)- and the spiritual relationship with land and water that characterize indigenous communities, manifest in the case of the Totonac linguistic group of the Gulf region of Mexico. Fieldwork was conducted in the municipality of Papantla, in northern Veracruz. In the paper I stress that in this peasant society water is at the heart of the Totonac worldview, and water is also present in dances of Pre-hispanic origin, such as the Ritual Ceremony of the Flyers, executed to petition for rain, and the Guaguas dance, performed to thank the deities for the rains received.

Conference topic

Panel no. 11 - Responding Extractivist Reforms - Global Contexts and Local Insights on Neoliberal Extractive Policies

Preferred format

Oral



#48 Subjects of state: policies of state recruitment and the formation of subjectivities in contemporary Brazil

Boris Maia from BR (borismaia@id.uff.br) (Federal Fluminense University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Subjects of state: policies of state recruitment and the formation of subjectivities in contemporary Brazil

Abstract text

This paper explores the relationship between the policies of state recruitment and the constitution of a new kind of subjectivity for the bureaucrats in contemporary Brazil. The competitive entrance examination in Brazil is a social phenomenon and a mechanism of governance of great relevance. It was introduced in the 1930s as part of the civil service policy to ensure professionalization and rationalization. It is through these admission processes that the staffs that make up the state bureaucracies in Brazil are produced. During the training for the entrance exams, the candidates are submitted to a process of subjectivation of the state authority, here conceived as bureaucratic subjection. This process makes the candidates aware of and committed to the cultural conceptions of civil service that guide bureaucratic practices in the Brazilian public administration. The research is based on two years of participant observation in preparatory courses for competitive entrance examinations in two cities of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in addition to interviews with teachers and students of preparatory courses, and also interaction with these informants through online environments.

Conference topic

Panel no. 21 - An Anthropology of Policy: Legacies and Future Challenges

Preferred format

Oral



#49 Cosmic Anthropology as Our Future .

Michael Alexeevich Popov from GB (quantlab@Yandex.com) (OMCAN MI University of Oxford)



Abstract

Abstract title

Cosmic Anthropology as Our Future .

Abstract text

My colleagues in ESA,NASA and Roscosmos attempt to produce the Universe in the Lab as well as to find suitable exoplanet for our future. Similarly , my colleagues - biologists (working under projects of International Space Station) also suggest that sooner or later mankind must leave our comfortable planet in the search of our new home .This means,sooner or later, all anthropology could be merely extraterrestrial and space - based discipline of another kind. I'd like to describe,in this context, my KANT Mission ESA project ( Cosmic Vision 2015 - 2025) which is connected with technical preparations for such sort of transformation of anthropology in the terms of space mathematics, computer sciences. quantum physics and orbital epigenetics.

Conference topic

Panel no. 110 - Next Generation Anthropology: Cosmopolitanian Anthropology, World Anthropology, World Anthropologies, Trans-national Anthropology, or Something Else?

Preferred format

Oral



#50 The trap music shows the generational change about the @generation

Freccero Renata Renata from IT (renata.freccero@gmail.com) (University of Turin)



Abstract

Abstract title

The trap music shows the generational change about the @generation

Abstract text

The trap music is a new scary cultural born in the post humanism, loved by @generation. The rap music is not trap music, but all rap music is not trap music. This musical phenomenon goes beyond the divertissement. It offers a model of unconventional, socially inappropriate, disenchanted and exhibitionist individualism that proposes to young people the staging of the self, to be noticed through the use of social media, to more likes possible through the most used platforms such as Instagram, You Tube and others. On the material side, that sounds are tied to ontologies and epistemologies. The decoding of messages, the leading thought of visual and textual inputs, phrases, which are repeated obsessively, the references to entertainment related to drugs, highs, wealth and sex, emphasize lifestyles that reveal the real extent of this which represents this dangerous phenomenon compared to the new generations. The genre revolves around performances of criminality. The adolescent period of @generation tends to build a specific identity in which the very young identify themselves, seeking approval and easy success. The massive use of listening to this musical genre and the use of a certain language are signs that highlight a problem that does not only concern the trap music but is much wider. The first question to answer is if there are the anchors of tradition for the very young and, if they exist, what role do they play?

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#51 Why is marriage often fragile in matrilineal societies?

Robert Parkin from GB (robert.parkin@anthro.ox.ac.uk) (University of Oxford, UK)



Abstract

Abstract title

Why is marriage often fragile in matrilineal societies?

Abstract text

Matrilineal descent and the societies that have it have long been seen as being more in need of explanation than patrilineal descent, which tends to be treated as humanity’s default in descent terms. There is a long history of theories of matrilineal exceptionalism in anthropology, dating from the theory of evolutionary priority for ‘mother right’ in the 19th century to its contemporary revival through what has become known as the ‘grandmother’ hypothesis, positing female coalitions as prior in evolutionary terms, with grandmothers looking after a woman’s children so she can go gathering. Along the way matriliny has been explained with reference to horticulture, increased women’s rights and the often misunderstood matrilineal puzzle. However, it is also reasonable to suggest that matrilineal systems are not simply mirror images of patrilineal ones and that they potentially have characteristics of their own such as the ‘visiting husband’ phenomenon (or duolocalresidence) and a tendency for the marriage bond to be weak and unimportant. The proposed paper will explore these latter aspects further.

Conference topic

Panel no. 53 - The Human Legacy of Kinship

Preferred format

Oral



#53 Homeless in one's own country: Legacies of internal colonization

Subhadra Channa from IN (channa.subhadra@gmail.com) (Delhi University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Homeless in one's own country: Legacies of internal colonization

Abstract text

In February 2019, the Supreme Court of India directed that all the forest dwelling communities that could not prove their land rights to the forest were to be evicted. As many as 11, 27, 446 households as of now face eviction and many more will be added to that number. The indigenous peoples of India, many of them forest dwellers are subejcted to forced eviction, loss of livelihoods and life worlds nd thrown on the streets of the cities as destitute. The marginalisation and exclusion of peoples not conforming to the capitalist and neo-liberal way of the economy is a continuous process happening over decades where some citizens of a free nation remain excluded from all rights as citizens, facing discrimination and stigmatisation. Their lands and resources are continually being colonized by the dominant majority, often in the garb of national interest. This paper will interrogate the concept of nations in an emerging world of corporatized democracies, where rights ot life and dignity of a large number of legitimate citizens of these nations is continually compromised to make way for corporate greed, economic exploitation and marketing of a particular way of life that is increasingly becoming unsustainable yet touted as \'development\' and a desired goal for so-called progress. The increasingly widening power divides and the legitimization of exclusion and even violence in the name of \'national interest\' is becoming an agenda of most far right governments in power across the globe. This paper will generalize from India as a case.

Conference topic

Panel no. 22 - Legacies of Forced Migrations: The Politics of Exclusions and Inclusions

Preferred format

Oral



#56 ETHNOGRAPHIC MUSEUMS AND COLLABORATIVE ACTIONS IN INDIAN CONTEXT

AJAI PRATAP SINGH from IN (profsingh@rediffmail.com) (LUCKNOW UNIVERSITY)



Abstract

Abstract title

ETHNOGRAPHIC MUSEUMS AND COLLABORATIVE ACTIONS IN INDIAN CONTEXT

Abstract text

The origin of ethnographic museums in independent India can be traced back to the year 1950 with the establishment of Museum of Ethnography in the Department of Anthropology at Lucknow University and formation of Ethnographic and Folk Culture Society in it.Since then,much developments have taken place in the domain of ethnographic museum and its collaborative actions in Indian context.The depiction of artifacts and associated finds in the ethnographic museum have undergone from traditional methods to digital methods. Nowadays ,the emphasis is on the depiction of tribal,rural and urban culture through computer graphics and interactive methods.The recent example of this depiction is the collaborative action in the form of SHRI(Science and Heritage Research Initiative) to organize workshops in the habitat of Tharu tribe for conservation of its art,craft and culture.The present research paper analyses all the aspects of ethnographic museums and collaborative actions in Indian context in a critical way.

Conference topic

Panel no. 103 - Collaborative Actions and Ethnographic Museums

Preferred format

Oral



#57 Performing Industrial Labour at War: ‘Waveless’ Feminist Inquiry into Women in Engineering

Katarzyna Kosmala from GB (katarzyna.kosmala@uws.ac.uk) (UWS)



Abstract

Abstract title

Performing Industrial Labour at War: ‘Waveless’ Feminist Inquiry into Women in Engineering

Abstract text

This paper embraces a notion of ‘waveless’ feminism, challenging shifts in an evolution of feminist theory. The focus is on the women struggle over their positionality in the context of industrial labour during the First and the Second World War, and subsequently, their campaigning to recognize women’s contribution in the engineering professional field. The paper draws on archival material to discuss the representational interplay between gender and performance in the context of the Tongland Works of the Galloway Engineering Company, built during the First World War in Scotland. The factory was a unique venture to carry out war work in engineering, as well as to train women as professional engineers at the time when women were not allowed into the engineering profession. The paper also draws on the series of recent exhibitions, featuring discursive accounts from the industrial press as well as first person narratives of the women ‘pioneers’, those targeted initially to this programme, thinking through how the factory spaces were constructed and experienced in and through gender performativity. The paper will discuss some of the challenges around career prospects for successful apprentices, taken to the professional ranks on the completion of the programme as well as a response to these challenges through feminist activism at the time. I conclude that articulation of waveless feminism over time points at circularity of an ideological struggle. There seem to be no single theory linked with a particular feminist movement or its articulated political agenda that supports arguments advanced in this paper. The presentation takes form of a film made by Fablevision Studios for the University of the West of Scotland’s research project on Dorothee Pullinger that chronicles the automobile and aeronautical engineer and manager and her pioneering place in the history of female engineers in Great Britain.

Conference topic

Panel no. 06 - Feminist-inspired Activist Imaginaries for Making Change: Social Making Legacies and Methodological Framings

Preferred format

Oral



#58 Sports, class and anti-elitism in Argentine society: the figure of the "killer" rugby player and the contribution of anthropology

Sebastian Fuentes from AR (sebasfuentes3@gmail.com) (CONICET/FLACSO/UNTREF)



Abstract

Abstract title

Sports, class and anti-elitism in Argentine society: the figure of the "killer" rugby player and the contribution of anthropology

Abstract text

In January 2020, a group of rugby players from Buenos Aires murdered Fernando Baez, a 19-year-old boy in the coastal town of Villa Gesell, outside a nightclub. The following public debate focused on their alleged pathological character, with interventions coming from psychology and law. But also from anthropology and social sciences: different specialists were called by the media to present our reflections on the problem. In the world of the institutions of rugby, two positions were held. On the one hand, many unions rejected the nickname of "rugbyers" as a characteristic of the group of young killers, pointing out that rugby was not the problem. On the other, other actors assumed that in Buenos Aires rugby there are some practices that reinforce the exercise of violence over others. The text aims to place anthropological reflection in the middle of this public debate. I point out the role of the anthropology of sport as the one that can guide to introduce the dimension of power and social inequality in phenomena that are strongly read from a psychological perspective. I understand that the contribution we have made points out that the naturalized "education in values" through sports, help -among others axes of naturalized power- to prevent us from seeing the dominance of a common sense built in the elites of Buenos Aires and expanded to other social sectors. Those interested discourses does not allow us to conceive danger and violence in subjects who carry greater cultural and moral capital.

Conference topic

Panel no. 12 - Anthropology of Sports in its Coming of Age

Preferred format

Oral



#59 Traditional Food and Products to achieve SDGs in India

Arun Kumar from IN (shubh01arun@gmail.com) (Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalay)



Abstract

Abstract title

Traditional Food and Products to achieve SDGs in India

Abstract text

The diversity of India has conserved through indigenous innovations, practices and skills and associated with community traditions and practices. The traditional food system plays a significant role in improving and strengthens medicare system through improvement in the quality of life including health and nutritional status, food system with improving nutrient values, consumable products for other such as fermented food products like Sinki. A major proportion of the community is suffering from health problems such as Malnutrition, Malaria, Tuberculosis and etc due to minimum involvements of traditional knowledge, food and beverages system and ignorance of their cultural acceptability in the modern health care system, livelihood programme and development programme/policies. The Indigenous diet and tradition food system found helpful to fight with modern illnesses and potentially fulfil dietary recommendations for various micronutrients. The traditional fermented food/beverage with cultural acceptability can play an important role in the better livelihood of communities through enhanced food security and income generation via a valuable small scale enterprise option and marketable products. No poverty and Good health and Wellbeing are the most important goals of Sustainable Development will be achieved via well being and development programme/policies with including culturally important of traditional knowledge and traditional food among comminutes. The present research paper aims to find out the socio-cultural value of traditional food and products and also explore the possibilities of their marketing to achieve the SDGs.

Conference topic

Panel no. 58 - Coming of Age for the Traditional Medicine System of Indigenous Populations: Is Connecting the Unconnected the Way Forward?

Preferred format

Oral



#60 Local knowledge for environmental protection and climate change adaptation in Africa: Towards Decolonizing Climate Science

Geoffrey I. Nwaka from NG (geoffreynwaka@yahoo.com) (Abia State University, Uturu)



Abstract

Abstract title

Local knowledge for environmental protection and climate change adaptation in Africa: Towards Decolonizing Climate Science

Abstract text

The paper underscores the value and continuing relevance of indigenous/local knowledge for environmental protection and climate change adaptation in Africa. It argues that while Africa stands to gain from global science and international best practices, the continent should search within its own knowledge systems for appropriate ideas and approaches to many of its development challenges. Africa contributes least to, but suffers the most from the disastrous consequences of climate change. Ironically, most traditional African societies have deeply entrenched ideas about environmental protection and sustainability because their livelihood depends largely on the land and on the stability of the ecosystem. They have over the years developed intricate systems of forecasting weather systems in order to prevent and mitigate natural disasters. The unprecedented scale of climate change today may have undermined the reliability of many traditional indicators and techniques for preventing and adapting to the current climate emergency. There is therefore a need for those who hold and use traditional knowledge to partner with scientists and practitioners in order to co-produce updated knowledge for better climate risk management. Researchers and the development community should try to tap into this vital resource for indigenous/local knowledge for locally appropriate and culture-sensitive ways to engage with the environment, and adapt to the negative impacts of climate change. The paper concludes with some general reflections on the indigenous knowledge movement as an appropriate local response to globalization and Western knowledge dominance, and as a way to underscore the fact of epistemic diversity and the need for inter-cultural dialogue.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#61 “Tagay ta, Bai!”: The Social Dynamics of Filipino Social Drinking

Jamaal Santos Omamalin from PH (jmamalin@gmail.com) (PAREF Springdale School, Inc.)



Abstract

Abstract title

“Tagay ta, Bai!”: The Social Dynamics of Filipino Social Drinking

Abstract text

This study described the social dynamics of Filipino social drinking, or "tagay". Specifically, it aimed to answer the following objectives: (1) define tagay as a distinct drinking culture, looking into social considerations, gender-related interactions, power relations, and material components; (2) determine the technicalities, and behavioral rules of tagay; and (3) assess the perceptions and interpretations of participants on tagay. This study employed the qualitative research design through the ethnographic method, with participant observation, with other research techniques, as the primary research technique. Drinking sessions were participated in by the researcher. The researcher participated in 4 drinking sessions with diverse purposes and participant profiles. Interviews were made with 11 informants who engage in tagay comprised of 2 males, 7 females, and 2 self-identified gays, beyond the age of 20, and selected through convenience and purposive sampling. Tagay, the Filipino social drinking culture, is engaged by people with reasons usually celebratory and enjoyable in nature. It possesses, in though mundane in presence in Philippine society, a myriad of social dynamics and elements which gear its conduct- rules, time and place, behaviors, gender and power relations, material components, roles, mechanisms, definitions, and functions. Though the culture is influenced by social considerations, the identity of tagay as a Filipino drinking culture remains distinct as embodied by a single glass to drink from and continues to be dynamic and adaptive, with heavy reliance on those who partake. Tagay becomes what it is as to how it is perceived and defined by those who do it.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#62 Desired Encounters

Sabine Bauer-Amin from AT (sabine.bauer-amin@oeaw.ac.at) (Austrian Academy of Sciences)



Abstract

Abstract title

Desired Encounters

Abstract text

Encounters often happen on asymmetrical grounds. Hence, certain encounters are more desired than others, since they either solidify notions of difference or help to divert them. By focusing on the potentiality inherent in encounters, this contribution asks in particular, how the imagining of these desired encounters shapes subjectivities and affective reactions despite not (yet) being realized. This contribution is based on fieldwork amongst a Vienna-based Arab collective of artists, mainly consisting of refugees of the past 10 years, who try to reach out to an Austrian audience. While their day-to-day encounter with Austria consists mainly of interactions with bureaucrats and social welfare personal, the collective seeks to overcome the asymmetry inscribed in it by creating new forms of engagement. Yet, their desired encounter is largely unanswered by the Austrian public sphere. In contrast, the Austrian public sphere is shaped by two diametrical discourses that are in close dialogue with each other but hardly aware of other voices: a conservative anti-refugee front and a leftist pro-refugee force. These spheres exist in parallel to each other with hardly any overlaps. Yet, the Arab artists collective desires an encounter with an imagined Austrian public, which in turn, influences their self-understanding, organisation of events and very location of their own knowledge production. Based on a discussion on potentiality in encounters (Fountain 2016), this contribution adds to the debate on transforming subjectivities (Zahavi 2013, Biehl et al. 2007), the production of knowledge and desired socialites (Long & Moore 2013).

Conference topic

Panel no. 31 - The Potentiality of Encounters

Preferred format

Oral



#63 Human Kinship Terminologies and Language Evolution

German DZIEBEL from US (dziebelg@gmail.com) (Omnicom)



Abstract

Abstract title

Human Kinship Terminologies and Language Evolution

Abstract text

Human systems of kinship and marriage occupy an important place at the heart of social, population and linguistic evolution. Anthropologists have long used kinship systems as a microscope into the evolution of human social organization and social cognition. Kinship scholars see the global diversity of human kinship terminological systems as split between more ancestral Classificatory and more derived Descriptive modes of kin classification. Dziebel (The Genius of Kinship, 2007) advanced an updated evolutionary taxonomy of kinship terminologies based on an analysis of a global database of 2500 kinship vocabularies. The new taxonomy captures a seismic shift from Indexical to Symbolic kinship terms, a change that mirrors the transition from Classificatory to Descriptive kinship terminological systems. Minimally referentially-symbolic and minimally syntactically-recursive terminologies tend to have semantic properties encoded via Speaker-relative and reciprocal indexical distinctions (Ego-Sex vs. Referent-Sex, Ego-Age vs. Referent-Age, Ego-Token vs. Referent-Token, etc.). Importantly, the global distribution of kinship terminological systems maps back to the existing global maps of genetic and linguistic diversities. The gradients of global kinship transformation reflect therefore social, cultural and populational changes that Homo sapiens sapiens has gone through as this new “symbolic” species spread across the globe some 100,000 years ago. If the origin of language is tantamount to the origin of symbolic reference, syntactic recursion, dual patterning and analytical combinatorics, kinship term evolution provides a unique window into the emergence of autonomous, context-independent linguistic properties in a vital domain of human language that pertains to biological reproduction.

Conference topic

Panel no. 53 - The Human Legacy of Kinship

Preferred format

Oral



#64 Disjunctures of Violence: Gender and Fear in Self-Defense and Martial Arts Classes

Mary-Lee Mulhollnad from CA (mmulholland@mtroyal.ca) (Mount Royal University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Disjunctures of Violence: Gender and Fear in Self-Defense and Martial Arts Classes

Abstract text

Based on two years of fieldwork in self-defense and martial arts classes, this paper explores the distinct and irreconcilable perceptions of violence and fear that orient, shape and constitute the experience of instructors and students alike. For example, the fear of “Stranger Danger” violence in which an unknown assailant, usually in an unanticipated fashion, perpetuates violence was the quite common in self-defense classes. Whereas, the anticipation of “Street Fighting,” a violence that emerges out of conflict in public, sometimes consensual and often between men, was frequent in martial arts classes. In addition, “Intimate Violence,” generally understood as violence perpetuated by someone known, often assumed to be domestic and/or sexual violence, was more common in self-defense classes then martial arts classes. Notably, the manner in which instructors and students conceptualize violence (usually based on their own experiences) are never the same and lead to productive gaps, failures, and frictions in the embodiment and perception of violence.

Conference topic

Panel no. 12 - Anthropology of Sports in its Coming of Age

Preferred format

Oral



#65 Suckling and the Coronavirus: What Does Each Tell Us About Kinship’s Human Foundation

Fadwa El Guindi from US (felguindi@gmail.com) (University of California, Los Angeles)



Abstract

Abstract title

Suckling and the Coronavirus: What Does Each Tell Us About Kinship’s Human Foundation

Abstract text

Recent advances made in anthropology reached through generating new primary (field ethnographic) data and by systematically revisiting existing theory of kinship reveal a clearly unique human nature to kinship relations characterized by specific and specified pathways of incorporation, ritually re-affirmed, including the institution of regulations defining incest prohibitions and resulting avoidances, as well as pointing to a cognitive basis characterizing the process of becoming humankind, a capacity anchored in social and cultural foundations, of which kinship as foundational. This presentation will go over these points, illustrating them with ethnographic based data, and conclude with reflective remarks on what the current invasion of the biological phenomenon of Coronavirus-19 tell us about the human condition.

Conference topic

Panel no. 53 - The Human Legacy of Kinship

Preferred format

Oral



#66 The continuous attempts for further involvements - museums and indigenous people in Australia

Sachiko Kubota from JP (kubotas@people.kobe-u.ac.jp) (Kobe Unviersity)



Abstract

Abstract title

The continuous attempts for further involvements - museums and indigenous people in Australia

Abstract text

In Australia, the relationships between museums and indigenous people started to change at the end of the 1980s. The repatriation of human remains and sacred secret objects became the key issues, and the museum policy was adapted in 1993, which recognized the rights to self-determination of indigenous people in their cultural property. Museums have altered their relationships with indigenous people and the exhibition itself. By the end of the 1990s, most of the metropolitan museums employed indigenous curators or junior stuff at least. Furthermore, in 2005, the policy and guidelines for indigenous rights were renewed. Nevertheless, in the 2000s, these moves were a slowdown in some institutions, and a few cases, they lost indigenous stuff, and indigenous involvements became inactive. In 2017, the Indigenous Roadmap project started to update the principles and guidelines for the Australian Museums and Galleries Association. The development of the new guideline started from the survey about the current situation. They published the report in 2019. In Australia, although the obstacles, attempts to enlarge the indigenous involvement in museums and galleries are steady and persistent.

Conference topic

Panel no. 103 - Collaborative Actions and Ethnographic Museums

Preferred format

Oral



#69 Re-Imagining Spaces for Representation in the Divided City: The Cases of Urban Street Art in ‘Post’- Conflict Beirut and Belfast

Omar El Masri from GB (el_masri-o@ulster.ac.uk) (Transitional Justice Institute/Ulster University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Re-Imagining Spaces for Representation in the Divided City: The Cases of Urban Street Art in ‘Post’- Conflict Beirut and Belfast

Abstract text

The research investigates the social and political dimension of street art in deeply divided cities of Beirut and Belfast and how experiences with the ethnonational and the neoliberal urbanisation of space constitute and maintain the perceptions and motivations of street artists to engage with everyday life. While more is understood on the neoliberal urban and ethnonational impact on the social perceptions within divided cities, much less is understood about their impact on social perceptions of street art communities. The research design compared the urban and social phenomenon of street art in the post-conflict cities of Beirut and Belfast, over a four-month, blended case study and focused ethnography. The researcher conducted twenty-two semi-structured interviews with eighteen street artists, three festival organisers and one city management official, and observed participants while volunteering at two street art festivals in Belfast. The findings revealed the street art communities engage in small- ‘p’ political acts which determine how participants view their practices, and what kind of places they hope to achieve. They re-purpose taken-for-granted spaces within the city to demonstrate how street artists adjust their practices to reveal pragmatic and rule based forms of placemaking to avoid jarring with sectarian identities, while bringing attention to the democratic, transient and transformative nature of their practices. The street art communities makes use of space with the intention of awakening the slumber of urban dwellers with the visceral enjoyment and experiences of creating and producing street art for the inhabitants of the space.

Conference topic

Panel no. 91 - Knowing in the Field: Ethnography in Overbearing Conditions (sponsored by the Arab Council for the Social Sciences)

Preferred format

Oral



#70 Playing in the Uncanny: In Search of the Otherwise of Poland’s Jewish Revival

Yasmine Eve Lucas from CA (yasmine.eve.lucas@gmail.com) (University of Toronto)



Abstract

Abstract title

Playing in the Uncanny: In Search of the Otherwise of Poland’s Jewish Revival

Abstract text

Anti-Semitism has been integral to Poland’s nation-building process since the sixteenth century. Nonetheless, since the fall of Communism in 1989, Poland has been experiencing a Jewish revival, run for the most part by non-Jewish Poles. Scholars have argued that, more than reflecting on Jewishness or pre-WWII history, these Poles instrumentalize Jewishness to reconfigure what has become an extremely homogenous, populist nation. In so doing, these Poles end up reproducing many of the dynamics they ostensibly resist: by staging their opposition through Jewishness, they adopt nationality and ethnicity as the terms of individual and group identity, just as conservative Poles do with Polishness. Poles of the Jewish revival violently reinforce boundaries between groups through binary, dialectical opposition. While acknowledging that these dynamics are at play, this paper argues that a closer examination of Poles’ engagement with Jewishness suggests subtler, more complex dynamics. In addition to simply opposing ethno-nationalist Polishness—and, in so doing, taking their “first steps from a footing of complicity” (Sanders 2002, qtd. in Singh 2018, 98)—certain Poles of the Jewish revival engage in relations that implicate ambivalence, porousness, impermanence, and vulnerability. Certain Poles engage in this otherwise, first, by becoming entangled with uncanny “atmospheres” inflected by pre-WWII material “traces” of Jewish life. Second, they do so by “living creatively” in Jewish institutions that foster familial atmospheres conducive to such comfort and play. These unsteady interactions trouble the idea that dialectical responses are the most responsible or noteworthy ways of engaging with complex, violent pasts and presents.

Conference topic

Panel no. 64 - Sensory Environmental Relationships - Between Memories of the Past and Imaginings of the Future

Preferred format

Oral



#74 Finding voice and agency : Indian Women and Social Media Activism in Contemporary times

Nilika Mehrotra from IN (nilika21@yahoo.co.in) (Jawaharlal Nehru University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Finding voice and agency : Indian Women and Social Media Activism in Contemporary times

Abstract text

Women in India have taken to social media in a big way in last one decade, despite a glaring digital divide. This talk explores hitherto unexamined constraints, potentials and opportunities for growing masses of middle class women. From engaging in Anti corruption movement, Nirbhaya campaigns, Me too movement and protests against police violence in universities, women are visible and vocal on social media but face misogyny, threats and abuses on a regular basis. Does this deter them? How do they raise voice and form communities in the virtual spaces? Through citing examples of emerging solidarities in the Indian social media I discuss how younger women are reframing feminist agendas, changing life practices and finding new agency.

Conference topic

Panel no. 06 - Feminist-inspired Activist Imaginaries for Making Change: Social Making Legacies and Methodological Framings

Preferred format

Oral



#75 The future is now: Towards social responsibility and care

Nina Vodopivec from SI (nina.vodopivec@inz.si) (Institute for Contemporary History)



Abstract

Abstract title

The future is now: Towards social responsibility and care

Abstract text

The paper addresses three different visions of the future in relation to social changes in Slovenia. It refers to the metanarrative about entrepreneurship as a generator of social development, to social entrepreneurship as an institutional agent of social changes, and to social experimentation practices and initiatives. The three vision modalities are referred to because they are perceived in the context of their common ideational characterisation and mutual feedback (even though in a critique). In this paper, I will focus on the vision I refer to as social experimentation. With the term, I name distinct, self-organized initiatives which share basic values and are oriented toward building “a sustainable, just and inclusive community”, responsible for the planet (animals, nature, and next generations). Social experimentations involve exploring new forms of work and life and testing them in practice; they involve creating community based solutions. These initiatives are concerned with future consequences in particular regarding ecological crisis, they underlined ethics of care and the new moral context of obligation and responsibility. The paper will look into these practices to explore people's motivations and imaginations, their understandings, in particular in relation to their engagement with temporality. I am interested to see how social change relates to the way the future is envisioned and experienced, how a different future is imagined.

Conference topic

Panel no. 45 - Whose Future Is It? Temporality and Asymmetric Politics in Times of Uncertainty

Preferred format

Oral



#76 Contradictions of political inclusion of vulnerabilized people’s perspectives in policies governing their everyday lives: a critical policy analysis of deinstitutionalization

Leyla Safta-Zecheria from RO (leyla.safta@e-uvt.ro) (West University Timisoara)



Abstract

Abstract title

Contradictions of political inclusion of vulnerabilized people’s perspectives in policies governing their everyday lives: a critical policy analysis of deinstitutionalization

Abstract text

Inclusion of the voices of vulnerabilized groups in processes that aim to govern their lives has become a political and ethical imperative of policymaking in the aftermath of several United Nations Conventions (CRPD, CRC). Yet, what does political inclusion mean when it interacts with social policy making? How stable are meaning structures across different sites, where policy is re-articulated and re-created (on European, national, local levels)? What are the contradictory power relations embedded in policy documents and how do they relate to the processes of policy circulation and translation? The proposed paper will reflect on these questions through a critical policy analysis of deinstitutionalization of care services for people with disabilities in Romania. Two issues are particularly salient for understanding the paradoxes of political inclusion and policymaking: (1) the hierarchical ordering of forms of knowledge and entitlement to claims to expertise (professional/ user) within policy documents and how different sites of policy creation and implementation re-create with the inherent tension between political inclusion of vulnerabilized perspectives and the professional expertise that has dominated the policy landscape and language, as well as (2) the conceptualization of needs and aspirations of people with disabilities as individual and not collective processes that need to be assessed, rather than co-produced in a barrier-free environment. The paper will conclude by looking into the dynamic ways in which opposing and contradictory claims to expertise, as well as different understandings of aspirations travel through the process by which international policy frames become translated into local practices.

Conference topic

Panel no. 21 - An Anthropology of Policy: Legacies and Future Challenges

Preferred format

Oral



#77 Traveling theories, hybrids, and the co-evolution of Korean and Chinese anthropology

Choong-Hwan Park from KR (parkhanam@knu.ac.kr) (Kyungpook National University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Traveling theories, hybrids, and the co-evolution of Korean and Chinese anthropology

Abstract text

Some Chinese scholars whom I met during my PhD dissertation fieldwork in China grumbled that Western anthropologists could never understand the deep essence of Chinese culture because they did not study the Book of Changes (Yijing). Decades ago, an old Korean anthropologist complained to me as a critique of the Euro-American centrism of anthropological knowledge that Western anthropologists could never reach the ultimate depth of Korean culture because they did not study Korean classics (actually Chinese classics). My presentation examines the theoretical and methodological implications of these essentialist claims on their own cultures and academic foundations by Chinese and Korean anthropologists in the history of East Asian anthropology. Based on this, I will speculate on the possibility of co-evolution of Korean and Chinese anthropology.

Conference topic

Panel no. 89 - Rethinking East Asian Anthropologies in Historical Perspective

Preferred format

Oral



#78 Standardization of the Yi script plan and Yi Japanese Bilingual Education

Teng ZHAO from CN (zhaoteng0086@163.com) (Chengdu University) , Li ZHANG from CN (zhaoteng0086@163.com) (Southwest Minzu University) , Keqi MAHAI from CN (zhaoteng0086@163.com) (Siyuan Experimental School) , Gaga JIBU from CN (zhaoteng0086@163.com) (Xide Yi Minority middle School)



Abstract

Abstract title

Standardization of the Yi script plan and Yi Japanese Bilingual Education

Abstract text

Since the State Council approved the implementation of the "Standardization of the Yi script plan" in 1980, the Yi language has been well inherited in Liangshan.Local primary and secondary schools have created a unique Yi-Chinese bilingual teaching model, and realized the connection with the college entrance examination in China. The “Belt and Road” strategy promotes the building of a community of common destiny for all mankind, In this context, the demand for small language talents is growing. Japanese is one of the languages available for foreign language subjects in the college entrance examination, it is of great practical significance to carry out Yi-Japanese bilingual teaching in Liangshan. The Yi area of China and Japan both belong to the TERUHA forest cultural belt,and there are a lot of similarities between Yi and Japanese in pronunciation, grammar, and so on.This paper aims to find out the similarities and differences between the two languages through investigation. Based on this, the paper will discuss the upcoming Japanese language education program in the ten high schools of Liangshan,and provide sustainable development plans. This project will help to improve the current situation of local education, train talents who are proficient in the three languages of Yi, Chinese, Japanese, and accelerate the internationalization process of Liangshan area.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#79 An Anthropologist in Changing Japan: Explaining Long-term Research

Joy Hendry from GB (jhendry@brookes.ac.uk) (Oxford Brookes University) , James Hendry from ES (jhendry@brookes.ac.uk) (Leaf of Life Films) , Nadine Kreter from ES (jhendry@brookes.ac.uk) (Leaf of Life Films)



Abstract

Abstract title

An Anthropologist in Changing Japan: Explaining Long-term Research

Abstract text

This educational film documents an anthropologist's return to a village she has worked with over a 45 year period. She brings each household's family tree and a village-wide chart of relationships that she made during her first fieldwork, and as she revisits homes and village locations, a picture emerges of the changes that have occurred. The film is introduced by the anthropologist (myself, Joy Hendry) and explains the nature of ethnographic research, focusing on the advantages of long-term fieldwork in one place. The location and economy of the village are illustrated by the film, and the original neighbours of the anthropologist and other villagers are introduced, with conversations explained in English. An interesting aspect of the change illustrated is the way the wider city around the village builds on prior activities of everyday life now to present them as tourist attractions. Tea growing has been one successful venture which is featured as an example.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#81 Developing Derrida’s Radical Hospitality with Multispecies Cosmopolitanism as an Approach for Managing Climate Change Displacement

Jessica Martin from AT (jessica.martin11@outlook.com) (Previously ISJ, ACU)



Abstract

Abstract title

Developing Derrida’s Radical Hospitality with Multispecies Cosmopolitanism as an Approach for Managing Climate Change Displacement

Abstract text

We are currently in an era labelled the Anthropocene, in which humans are considered a primary force in changing the geological planetary face. The question of cosmopolitanism, what constitutes it, how we define it, and how we perform it as cosmopolitan beings, is being debated in many disciplinary circles. In this paper, I argue for the need to develop a Derridean Radical Hospitality as part of our duty as not only international cosmopolitans but as multispecies cosmopolitans. I demonstrate that there are existing Sites of Refuge, albeit not quite Cities of Refuge, which provide a fertile space for developing mutual and reciprocal interspecies intersubjective relationships as well as conditions for productive cooperation between Western and non-Western anthropologies. I investigate Japan as a case study for understanding how a nation-state government responds to climate calamities that cause internal displacement. I then develop Derrida’s Radical Hospitality, extending it to a case example of a cosmozoopolitical site of refuge in Japan in which non-Japanese migrants are engaged in practices of affective relations of care in positive acts of (multispecies) cosmopolitanism. I now call for the collaboration with non-Western anthropologists on such a project, questioning: how can we better understand acts of positive cosmopolitanism in ways that challenge the current anthropocentred model, developing a multispecies cosmopolitanism? How can we develop our affective sensibilities, engaging in deeper, more meaningful practices of care centred on wellbeing, developing an affective hospitality that co-creates a mutually collaborative world in the midst of tumult and chaos?

Conference topic

Panel no. 110 - Next Generation Anthropology: Cosmopolitanian Anthropology, World Anthropology, World Anthropologies, Trans-national Anthropology, or Something Else?

Preferred format

Oral



#82 The Effect of the State Council's Yi Script Standardization Plan on the Construction of Math-sciences-Disciplines -- Policy changes/ local efforts

Ga Elizabeth WU from CN (3085867701@qq.com) (Liangshan Education Foundation) , Keqi MAHAI from CN (623281597@qq.com) (Siyuan Experimental School) , Dezhi SHEN from CN (86811644@qq.com) (Shimian County Middle School for Nationalities)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Effect of the State Council's Yi Script Standardization Plan on the Construction of Math-sciences-Disciplines -- Policy changes/ local efforts

Abstract text

This paper discusses 4 issues: 25 years efforts by the YI nation and nature of the standardization of LIANGSHAN/Yi script plan Achievements/ Impact of Standardization YI Script Plan on government practice/school-teaching/college-entrance-exam/employment/and exam for teacher'certification Challenges - 3-1math-teaching* 3-2 shifting policies on when the mandarin should be entered into YI class* how the 1980 Yi script plan helped to promote bilingual education in the science subject*major- the introduction of Han Chinese from the fourth to the first grade classes now to the preschool stage; how*why introduce Mandarin repeatedly into preschool Compare the Yi mathbilingual education with global studies by reviewing 44 pioneer studies *South American Indian*North American Indian /Pacific /Australian Aboriginal*Math-Multicultural/ 40-year bilingual science teaching since 1980 beyond the limitations of only translation state textbook, more astronomical heritage of the YI nation and her unique geographical location which contributing plant, animal and mineral knowledge to the scientific disciplines. Three-four*dimensional-space/relationship between academic mathematics and ethno Mathematics/teachers *students'cultural background Mother tongue's interference with the acceptance of mathematical knowledge/ Cartesian coordinates and the concept of*indigenous-space-differences/ language and maththoughts- Euclidean geometric understanding and indigenous people's thinking- Speed/terms/language and math-thought Maththinking of the-universe-world by the YI COVID-19-related bilingual materials help Yi medical researches 10-44 authors are /Almeida Andersson Atweh/Barton,/Bishop/Brown/ Chronaki/Cole/Conklin/Collins/ Frankenstein /Freire’/Freudenthal/Giongo/ KnijnikCurriculum/Gelsa/Geertz*Howard-Australian/Hersch*Davie/Dehaene* Amazonian indigene group/Elementary/ Curriculum/Kramsch/Sullivan/Izard/Dehaen/Landry/Lawrence/Lesser/Lave/Mesquita/Restivo- China-Needham, Science*civilization-Nussbaum/Nikolakaki/OECD (2010)./-teachers/students of diversity backgrounds/Piage/Pinxten/Dooren/Harvey/François/Ethnomathematics/Bendegem/ Indian canyon/ ethnomathematicsPISA030609*Powell*Frankenstein*Ethnomathematic/Smith*StepelmanMathematics/Povey/Powell/Restivo/QiaoTan*Mathematics-matheducation-PacificIslands/Restivo*Rubinstei*mathematics-and-civilization*Sánchez-OECD*PISA-2003-05-Sriraman-Social*Justicein-mathematics education-Sen*Idea of Justice/Skinner-Skovsmose, ethnomathematics*Vitha-Vygotsky/Thought and Language-*Skovsmose-Whitehead-mathematicalconcepts-*Whitley.Knorr*Science*andculture- COVID*19 bilingal online*materials help to build YI medicaldisciplines*clinical treatment drugs*vaccine development, detection technology*viral etiology, epidemiology*animal model construction and public health prevention.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#83 Ethical Self-Reflection and Biopolitics in Business Administrations: Researches of Japanese Companies

Michiko SAWANO from JP (sawano@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp) (Ritsumeikan University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Ethical Self-Reflection and Biopolitics in Business Administrations: Researches of Japanese Companies

Abstract text

I have had researches in small and medium-sized companies which are affected by Inamori Management Philosophy, from the perspective of Anthropology of Business Administration. Inamori Management Philosophy was made by Kazuo Inamori, the founder of Kyocera company, and aims to realize a society based on "Altruism." At the same time, it has the spiritual sides such as “the wisdom of the universe” and “the fate”. Entrepreneurs of small and medium-sized companies had formed a study group, Seiwajuku, to learn Inamori management philosophy since 1983. There were 56 branches in Japan, 44 branches in foreign countries, and the number of the members were over 13,000 until 2018 (However, in 2019, Inamori decided to close Seiwajuku because of his age). In the study group, members were encouraged to reflect on their ethical self-reflection, try and error their management according to their destiny, and had opportunities to present their management experience as a success story. In this presentation, I will introduce a project of one of the Seiwajuku member’s company in Japan. I have had a research there since 2016. Through this example, we can see that ethical management is well connected to the biopolitics. I want to think of the reason of that, specially related with social and global background.

Conference topic

Panel no. 15 - Coming of Age as Entrepreneurs: Biopolitics and Ethics of Youth in Modern-Day Economies

Preferred format

Oral



#86 The application status of standardizing Yi language in Yi area of China and the countermeasures of popularizing and standardizing it

Han LUO from CN (503577690@qq.com) (Xichang Yi Studies Academy Xichang Sichuan China) , Kailian LUO from CN (503577690@qq.com) (Xichang Yi Studies Academy Xichang Sichuan China) , Ding YANG from CN (503577690@qq.com) (Xichang Yi Studies Academy Xichang Sichuan China)



Abstract

Abstract title

The application status of standardizing Yi language in Yi area of China and the countermeasures of popularizing and standardizing it

Abstract text

This paper mainly introduces the origin, inheritance and standardization process of the yi nationality's characters and the regulations of the yi language promulgated by the state council of the People's Republic of China in 1980. The present situation, difficulties and problems of standardizing the application of yi literature in the yi nationality area; The countermeasures of promoting yi - Chinese bilingual teaching in yi - minority area. China is a multi-ethnic country. All the 55 ethnic minorities in China have their own mother tongue, but only seven have languages that have been passed down to the present day: yi, Tibetan, Mongolian, kazak, Korean, uygur and zhuang. Yi nationality is an ancient nationality with language and script.Due to the hereditary inheritance of the bi mo culture, the ancient yi script of the yi people has been kept intact. Therefore, the author believes that the yi nationality is a nation without generations. In today's places where yi people live in sichuan, yunnan, guizhou and guangxi, some of them, bimo, continue to circulate and read scriptures in the ancient yi language.This paper mainly talks about some personal views on standardizing the promotion and application of yi literature in yi inhabited areas for reference and criticism by experts and scholars attending the conference.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#88 School Based XBJC Teaching Materials by the Siyuan Primary School ----Preschool/ Firstyear/ Middle School/ Transition

Keqi MAHAI from CN (869502666@qq.com) (Siyuan Experimental School) , Wusha JIRI from CN (869502666@qq.com) (Siyuan Experimental School) , Wuga ADI from CN (476707920@qq.com) (Siyuan Experimental School)



Abstract

Abstract title

School Based XBJC Teaching Materials by the Siyuan Primary School ----Preschool/ Firstyear/ Middle School/ Transition

Abstract text

Bilingual education in SIYUAN school paid her special attention to needs of new YI students to enter the school. The research team led by wuga ADI has written local class and school based teaching materials-XBJX in order to help students\\\' more smooth transition from preschool to elementar then to middle school and help building the connection between teachers/ young YI children. The research team has designed the xbjc- school based teaching materials in both YI and HAN languages for better bi-lingual primary education in LIANGSHAN. Since 2018 Siyuan Primary School has conducted a research project to write and publish school-based teaching bi-lingual materials to help first year classes teachers and students becoming more familiar with each other and to further help checking/improving their mutual communication. Although Putonghua Hanyu was entered into all classes in kindergarten since 2017 due to lacking of enough Han teachers, Yi children\\\' putonghua language ability were still limited. In order to help the first and six-year students language transition period the Siyuan Elementary School has targeted the year one and year six students, identifying crucial language issues to help these classes during their early and final learning stages, to encourage both teachers and students to explore the optimal bilingual teaching model. Our team would like to invite respected global scholars to join our most important discussion in SIBENIK.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#89 Let the Yi - Han-Chinese "bilingual" teaching methods be succeed in Liangshan area

Chun LI from CN (923285600@qq.com) (Xichang ACADEMY of Yi Studies) , Ling TANG from CN (923285600@qq.com) (Xichang ACADEMY of Yi Studies) , Kairong CHEN from CN (923285600@qq.com) (Xichang ACADEMY of Yi Studies)



Abstract

Abstract title

Let the Yi - Han-Chinese "bilingual" teaching methods be succeed in Liangshan area

Abstract text

After more than 25 years of exploration and arduous efforts, scholars in liangshan YI Autonoumous Prefecture have explored teaching practices from mother tongue teaching only to the transitional type one and type two bilingual education modes which has become the special characteristics of the local education. This paper will discuss following 9 topics: 1-Accorded with the practice of national education model of general teaching, these two models have cultivated a large number of Han students and minority talents. 2-How these models helped improveing , enhancing national unity, culture inheritance and carry forward the YI national culture. 3-For promoting the state's economic and social development, LIANGSHAN has made important contributions. 4-At present, teachers/students from Xichang and Liangshan' 17 counties and cities all conducted the "bilingual" teaching methods to help Yi and Han students, coupled with the practice of English teaching. 5-DR Ga WU has recently created the education foundation, named as the bilingual education special fund. 6-To promote in-depth development of two models. 7-To help bilingual talented teachers to master the language and culture of the YI nationality. 8-To have a firm foundation in Chinese language, at the same time absorbing domestic and foreign advanced education teaching ideas. 9-Help students,in-depth understanding of scientific and cultural knowledge, also experience the charm of teaching languages.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#90 The welfare-credit trade-off in comparative perspective: Revisiting the debtfare hypothesis

SEBASTIAN KOHL from DE (kohl@mpifg.de) (MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF SOCIETIES) , Tod van Gunten from GB (todvangunten@gmail.com) (Edinburgh University)



Abstract

Abstract title

The welfare-credit trade-off in comparative perspective: Revisiting the debtfare hypothesis

Abstract text

Sociologists and political economists have begun to give increasing credence to the ‘debtfare’ hypothesis. This is the idea that welfare state provision and private household debt are substitutes; in countries with more generous welfare states, households have lower debt burdens because income support relieves the need to borrow to meet consumption needs. Conversely, in countries with less generous social policies, households borrow to sustain consumption in the face of stagnant salaries and income shocks. This paper revisits this hypothesis using both long-run cross-national time series data for 17 advanced economies since 1889 to the current day in addition to more recent EU-SILC micro-data. We argue that previous studies have erred in finding clear evidence supporting the debtfare hypothesis. In comparative perspective, the historical relationship between credit and social policy is positive rather than negative. With the most complete long-run data there is hence no welfare-debt trade-off. While there is some evidence of the emergence of a negative relationship in more recent data, we argue that on closer inspection the data do not sustain this interpretation. In order to account for this finding, we suggest that it is necessary to disaggregate both debt and social policy. In still ongoing analysis of EU-SILC microdata, we therefore test whether households facing income shocks are more likely to hold unsecured debt (e.g. credit card debt or personal loans) but not mortgage debt.

Conference topic

Panel no. 20 - Contesting Household Debt: Politics, Infrapolitics, and the Political Economy of Debtor-Creditor Relations

Preferred format

Oral



#91 Ethnographic experience in Bosnia and Herzegovina: “living in” the field and encountering fieldwork challenges in urban areas

Bogdan Dražeta from RS (drazetab@gmail.com) (Faculty of Philosophy)



Abstract

Abstract title

Ethnographic experience in Bosnia and Herzegovina: “living in” the field and encountering fieldwork challenges in urban areas

Abstract text

Our world is encountering various social, cultural, economic and political obstacles, as well people who live in such context. Having in mind that we belong to the discipline who study such topics, it is necessary to share and re-evaluate our research experiences with each other. In this lecture I will show my own ethnographic experience from the fieldwork done in urban areas of Sarajevo, East Sarajevo and Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 2017 until 2019. What was the challenge for me as an ethnologist-anthropologist of Serbian ethnicity and Orthodox religion to study compatriots in the neighborhood country, from which I partly descent? What encounters did I have by examining members of other nations and other religions, Bosniaks (Muslim) and Croats (Catholic), who speak the same polycentric language with the same substance and structure as I do? By “living in” the field with people, the knowledge about them was increasing, but also the circumstances regarding my own research position(s) which unavoidably merged with my life position(s). Informants’ perspectives also changed, as the self-awareness became an important part of their skills for overcoming critical times. Data on ethnographic experience in this presentation will give insight into challenges that our discipline has, and will offer possible stances based on which future generations can think and act when examining communities around them. Furthermore, it will suggest that our role as ethnologists and anthropologists will become visible when results of our work begin to provide widespread mutual understanding between different populations around the world.

Conference topic

Panel no. 91 - Knowing in the Field: Ethnography in Overbearing Conditions (sponsored by the Arab Council for the Social Sciences)

Preferred format

Oral



#92 1980 Standardizing Yi Script Plan and the Countermeasures of Promoting the 1980 Standardizing Yi Script Plan

Kailian LUO from CN (2102807281@qq.com) (Xichang Academy of Yi Studies) , Han LUO from CN (2102807281@qq.com) (Xichang Academy of Yi Studies)



Abstract

Abstract title

1980 Standardizing Yi Script Plan and the Countermeasures of Promoting the 1980 Standardizing Yi Script Plan

Abstract text

All the 55 ethnic minorities in China have their own mother tongue, but only seven have written-languages that have been passed down to the present day: they are YI, Tibetan, Mongolian, kazak, Korean, uygur and zhuang. The ancient YI script and Chinese oracle bone inscriptions are two of the seven original scripts of the world. Yi nationality is an ancient nationality with both oral- language and script. Due to the hereditary inheritance of the BIMO culture, the ancient YI script has been kept intact. Today YI people live in Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi, where the BIMO, continue to circulate and read scriptures in ancient YI language. The YI people's wedding and funeral customs have been passed down to the present day. The YI people's costumes are unique and colorful, and the costume making techniques have been passed down to the present day. Both tradition adopted YI traditional script patterns This paper mainly talks about oue views on standardizing, promotion and application of YI script- literature in YI inhabited areas. For all experts and scholars who attending the sibenik conference ,we will bring some books from Liangshan YI autonomous prefecture in Sichuan province, as gifts. There are 2.6 million YI people living in liangshan autonomous prefecture. The seat of the capital of liangshan prefecture is Xichang. In our paper, we will report in detail that why Liangshan prefecture is an outstanding bi-lingual center.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#93 Making the Invisible Visible, a comparative study of meaning: the invisibility of commercial mending and the visibility of social mending

Brenda Miller from GB (brenda@brendamiller.co.uk) (The University of Wolverhampton)



Abstract

Abstract title

Making the Invisible Visible, a comparative study of meaning: the invisibility of commercial mending and the visibility of social mending

Abstract text

Darning requires the simplest of tools: needle, thread and scissors, the skills to use them to create invisible or visible repairs. This study is exploring through moving image/film that within industrial production there remains the time consuming and skillful process of invisibly repairing flaws within the weaving process that little is known about. Teams of women invisibly mending through necessity continues virtually unchanged in high tech industry, while in recent years darning and mending has become a fashionable social activity. Initial research suggests that the skills passed on in the home to repair garments are in decline. Now mending groups are reviving and sharing the skills needed to repair and repurpose clothing by stitching colourful visible repairs as a statement of social responsibility. Drawing on concepts of de-skilling and re-skilling the workforce by John Roberts (2007) and Richard Sennett (2008, 2013), this paper looks at textile practice and skill in the age of manufacture and digitization and its potential relationship to the current turn to hand making. Industrially produced cloth requires the work of menders to disappear as they restore cloth to perfection whereas the stitching in mending groups seeks to alter the appearance of cloth through remediation or reconfiguration. The mending team at Woven Specialist Products, seen in the film Darning, http://vimeo.com/65155837 provides the starting point. My observations suggest how bringing workers together to share skills capture stories and pleasures through making can enhance the workplace community and potentially encourage skill development in amateur mending groups.

Conference topic

Panel no. 06 - Feminist-inspired Activist Imaginaries for Making Change: Social Making Legacies and Methodological Framings

Preferred format

Oral



#94 Tilapia Entailments: How introduction of an invasive species initiated and then reversed migrant dominance at Lindu, Central Sulawesi (Indonesia)

Gregory Lawrence Acciaioli from AU (gregory.acciaioli@uwa.edu.au) (The University of Western Australia)



Abstract

Abstract title

Tilapia Entailments: How introduction of an invasive species initiated and then reversed migrant dominance at Lindu, Central Sulawesi (Indonesia)

Abstract text

In its first decade of independence the Indonesian government embarked on a program of dumping fish spawn of the usually pond-cultivated species Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) into a numerous lakes across Indonesia. After tracing the history of tilapia in Indonesia, this paper traces the chain of consequences across decades of this fish’s introduction in Lake Lindu in highland Central Sulawesi. Not only did this invasive species destroy most endemic piscine species, it also did not initially provide enhanced livelihood opportunities to the Indigenous Lindu people nor increased protein to neighbouring montane peoples, as the Fisheries Department had intended. Instead, Bugis migrants, IDPs from sectarian conflict in South and Central Sulawesi in the 1950s, used their gill nets to intensify harvesting of the species and established a fish marketing system to the Palu Valley and beyond by recruiting kin and clients from their homeland through chain migration. However, when the Bugis depleted the stock of tilapia through using gill nets with ever smaller mesh size, the Indigenous Lindu people struck back, once the lake had been reseeded with tilapia, by forcing Bugis to subscribe to customary ombo restrictions on fishing as part of their reassertion of control of the lake. In addition, the Indigenous Lindu customary council has used their newfound role as community resource managers to gain acknowledgement as co-managers of the surrounding national park through community conservation agreements and thereby control in-migration to the Lindu plain and reverse the socioeconomic dominance of the migrants.

Conference topic

Panel no. 50 - Invasiveness: Knowledges, Constructions and Representations of Invasive Species

Preferred format

Oral



#95 Understanding New Social Movement through Niyamgiri Movement in Odisha

Sipra -- Sagarika from IN (sipra.sagarika@gmail.com) (Fakir Mohan University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Understanding New Social Movement through Niyamgiri Movement in Odisha

Abstract text

New Social Movements have been the spotlight of Global South since a long time. One such important new social movement is Niyamgiri Movement in the districts of Kalahandi and Rayagada, in Odisha. A complete trendsetter movement of newer patterns of organized leadership, operations and functioning was marked in Niyamgiri Movement. The impact of Vedanta Aluminium Refinery on Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) i.e Kondhas in specific is very intense as a result of which the Niyamgiri Movement emerged as one of the unique movements in global South Asia. The uniqueness of its nature and characteristics refers to the fact that it is simultaneously both an environmental and indigenous movement . The role of civil society organization has been a vital aspect in the entire episode as well. A timely analysis of this movement through the lenses of New Social Movement is very essential. In this kind of a movement while all elements of organization and functioning were new in its nature, but certain core aspects such as religion, territory,rituals etc continued in its traditional pattern. For instance: The age long worshiping of Niyamgiri hill range as Niyam Raja by the Kondhas stayed at its elementary form. The clash between the macro force i.e Vedanta Aluminium Refinery (Globalization) and micro force i.e. Kondhas were basically on these parameters of religious believes and environmental protection. Thus, the paper tends to explore the ultimate approach of Conservation Cum Development (CCD) for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

Conference topic

Panel no. 73 - New Social Movements and Development: Perspectives from Global South

Preferred format

Oral



#96 Inside the Dutch debt maelstrom: introducing social credit and social debt as means to recognize economic micro-contestations

Henry van der Burgt from NL (h.vanderburgt@maw.ru.nl) (Radboud University Nijmegen)



Abstract

Abstract title

Inside the Dutch debt maelstrom: introducing social credit and social debt as means to recognize economic micro-contestations

Abstract text

Like most of the financialized world the Netherlands has been affected by the growing impact of consumer debt in the everyday lives of an increasingly more diverse group of citizens. This emerged during the 2007-2008 crisis and subsequent neoliberal national policies aimed at austerity, decentralization, self-reliance and labour market flexibility. In recent years this has increasingly put profit-driven debt collection practices at odds with a municipally organised welfare-based debt counselling service. Debtors remain in uncertainty, searching for counselling advice and in extreme cases debt forgiveness, while navigating a landscape which is slowly warming up to the notion that financial troubles can bear down on anyone and are rarely the result of wilfully bad decisions. Following a year-long ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with a wide range of different debtors in two Dutch municipalities, this study offers an insight in the inequalities that exist in the individual pathways out of debt. It appears that these inequalities result from the (un)willingness or (in)capability to conform to the mandatory requirements or presumed behavioural traits associated with financial responsibility. As these informants find themselves at various stages of a multi-year program which ultimately intends to provide full debt forgiveness, their attention shifts from contesting their subaltern financial precariousness towards other concerns such as living with chronic poverty, life after debt and the care needs of social dependents. Paradoxically, this study finds that the financial consequences or responsibilities resulting from these new concerns tend to assist with, but also simultaneously complicate, the studied pathways.

Conference topic

and the Political Economy of Debtor-Creditor Relations, Infrapolitics, Panel no. 20 - Contesting Household Debt: Politics

Preferred format

Oral



#97 Strengthen Bilingual Education in Ethnic Minority Areas with the Focus on Rural Education

Yu LUO from CN (953927309@qq.com) (Xichang ACADEMY of Yi Studies) , Xingxing DENG from CN (953927309@qq.com) (Xichang academy of Yi Studies)



Abstract

Abstract title

Strengthen Bilingual Education in Ethnic Minority Areas with the Focus on Rural Education

Abstract text

This paper will discuss 7 issues: 1--How to protect and inherit excellent traditional minority national culture, improving YI script'survival/living condifion. 2--For five thousand years, because of the differences in the region and the environment, China is a multi-culture, there are rich cultural from the ethnic language records and heritage. 3--Cultivation of Talents and Dissemination of YI knowledge-culture, carrying forward the YI nation's excellent traditional culture, focus on education. 4--The difficulty in popularizing, key weakness in the countryside-whether from top to bottom. 5--Various departments at all levels; attention to bilingual education, the multi-ethnic bilingual talents cultivation. 6--Selection, appointment with YI script exams, especially in ethnic minority areas, with an emphasis on YI-HAN education. 7--Comprehensively strengthen and the popularization of bilingualeducation.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#98 The Application of 1980 Standardization YI Script Plan in Liangshan YI Nationality

Budu YIHUO from CN (934239951@qq.com) (Liangshan Language and Script Service Center)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Application of 1980 Standardization YI Script Plan in Liangshan YI Nationality

Abstract text

This paper will reflect 11 issues: 1--Implement the relevant laws and regulations, promote the use of YI language in accordance with the law. 2--Implement the law of the People's Republic of China to YI common spoken and written languages areas. Law on regional ethnic autonomy, regulations on the autonomy of liangshan YI autonomous prefecture, regulations on the work of YI language in liangshan YI autonomous prefecture and other laws and regulations. 3--Further expand the use of YI language and improve the level of the use of YI language. 4--The use of the YI language should be included in the annual assessment of the objectives of each unit, and Inform the leaders who promote and use the YI language inimitably. 5--The teaching of YI language in primary and secondary schools should strengthen bilingual teacher training project and strengthen bilingual teaching management. 6--Improve the quality of teachers by selecting excellent researches/publications for teacher training program. 7--Every year, 9 to 12 teachers of type 1 model high school should be selected to study at the Sichuan Normal University. 8--Teachers of type 1 model high school should be selected to studies at the Sichuan Normal University --this practice has been practiced in our county for one year. 9--4 to 5 teachers are selected to teach and learn at the Xichang no.1 middle school and the zhouminzhong-middle school, fundamentally improving the quality of teachers. 10--Secondary schools must offer Yi language classes from grade one. 11--The unified examination, unified assessment, rewards and punishments sbould be organized.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#99 Standardization of the Yi script plan and promoting the inheritance and development of the Yi costume culture

LiQiong Li from CN (2652897152@qq.com) (Yi Studies Academic of HongHe state) , QingYi Peng from CN (2652897152@qq.com) (Intangible Cultural Heritage Center of HongHe) , Youfyu Shi from CN (2652897152@qq.com) (National Research Institute of HongHe state) , Wen Gao from CN (2652897152@qq.com) (International Yi Study Centre of HongHe Academy) , Jinhua Lu from CN (2652897152@qq.com) (Yi Studies Academic of HongHe state) , Jueshan Liu from CN (2652897152@qq.com) (Intangible Cultural Heritage Center of HongHe)



Abstract

Abstract title

Standardization of the Yi script plan and promoting the inheritance and development of the Yi costume culture

Abstract text

The development process of the Yi national words: using practical things to record→engraving on woods and knotting on rope→hieroglyph→ideograph→phonography,finally,them became a unique writing system which combined ideograph and phonography.The Yi national ancestors used the method of recording writing to record relevant subjects of their own nationality,such as history,astronomy, geography, biology, art and so on. SiChuan province,Yunnan province and Guizhou province all formed a program of Standardizing Yi national writing successively in 1980s.Through more than 30 years of bilingual teaching, popular science publicity and other practices, Yi people’s Cultural quality have been enhanced,and their living conditions have been improved,at the same time,this factors built a basis for inheritance of Yi national costumes culture. In 2008,Yunnan Yi's Sarni Embroidery was Selected in China's Intangible Cultural Heritage List ,and in 2014,Yi national costumes was also Selected in the List ,since then,a new journey of inheritance and development of Yi national costumes culture was opened. The essay will discuss: 1-Discuss origin of the Yi national writing. 2-Discuss standardization of the yi script plan and how the words combine with costumes industry. 3-Discuss how to put shapes and symbols that Yi national writing become in Yi national costumes and study their characteristic and intension. 4-Discuss nowadays, inheritance and development of Yi national costumes culture in HongHe state. 5-Discuss significance and value of normalized spreading and using Yi national.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#100 Spending Money versus Spending Time: The Unequal Costs of Free Public Transportation in Luxembourg

Sonja Faaren Ruud from LU (sonja.ruud@gmail.com) (Graduate Institute of Geneva)



Abstract

Abstract title

Spending Money versus Spending Time: The Unequal Costs of Free Public Transportation in Luxembourg

Abstract text

On February 29, 2020, Luxembourg became the first country in the world to institute fare-free public transportation, a policy hailed as a step toward equalizing access to mobility. While the measure allows transit users to save money, the amount of time it takes people to get around by public transportation varies wildly, often mirroring pre-existing socio-economic inequalities. In absence of a fare, time becomes the primary cost to be weighed and paid by public transit users. Currently, the country’s transit network is most time-efficient for those living and working in and around the capital city, where housing prices are on average much higher. Those who commute by public transportation from more affordable regions – including rural-dwellers in Luxembourg as well as cross-border commuters from Germany, France, and Belgium – are destined to spend significantly more time in transit and likely have less free time outside of work and commuting. Though the abolition of transit fares benefits users for whom the previous monthly fare was a financial burden, the geographical, infrastructural, and temporal constraints of the transit system often result in these individuals paying a higher time-price. Simultaneously, the ability to save time remains a luxury to be bought and sold by those who can afford it. Drawing from my ongoing ethnographic research on the country’s transition to fare-free transit, this paper explores the everyday experiences of public transit users living and/or working in diverse geographic areas of Luxembourg, and the decisions they make about spending money versus spending time to get around.

Conference topic

Panel no. 35 - Time, (Im)Mobility and Vulnerability

Preferred format

Oral



#101 Tribal youths in the Field under Fire: Marginalisation vs Development

Neetu Singh somvanshi from IN (somvanshineetu@gmail.com) (vidyant hindu degree college)



Abstract

Abstract title

Tribal youths in the Field under Fire: Marginalisation vs Development

Abstract text

Social exclusion of tribes is closely related to their marginal status in society. Marginalisation leads to criminalisation among youths in remote and tribal areas of India. Tribal communities can be brought into the mainstream development fold through appropriate strategies for their mobilisation and capacity building. Development refers to changes, planned or unplanned and at any level of society, through the process of modernization such as industrialization, increased communications and increased use of technology (Lewellen,2010:67). Choosing naxalism is not only a means of subsistence out of a lack of livelihood opportunities but linked to a "culture of marginality". Present paper would explore how to curb youths marginalization through development measures in naxal dominated areas of India. The entire analysis of the present paper revolves round Cernea’s concept of “Putting People First”. The study covers aspects such as powerlessness, isolation, poverty, vulnerability, interdependence and physical weakness among Desia Kandha tribal youths in Rayagada district of Odisha. The present study focuses its attention largely on the impact of the development initiatives on Desia Kandha youths. The study was carried out in Bariguda, Hadasinkula and Dedipada villages of Bissamcuttack block in Rayagada district of Odisha (India) through synchronous comparison (synchronic study).

Conference topic

Panel no. 09 - Youth, Crime and Marginality in Europe and Beyond

Preferred format

Oral



#102 How Has Korean Anthropology Been Eurocentric?

Jeong Duk Yi from KR (jdyi@jbnu.ac.kr) (Jeonbuk National University) , Ji Young Yang from KR (yangyang0203@hanmail.net) (Jeonbuk National University)



Abstract

Abstract title

How Has Korean Anthropology Been Eurocentric?

Abstract text

The basic concepts of anthropology and social sciences in Korea were introduced to Korea from the West from the late 19th century. Human being, man, individual, evolution, society, culture, civilization, social function, structure, religion, freedom, nation, state, and so on were translated and have been used in East Asia for about 150 years. After the 1960s, many Korean anthropologists have studied in America and Europe and directly imported the theories and studies of Western anthropology to Korea through translated concepts. These concepts and theories are the frameworks Korean anthropologists adopted to figure out the dynamics of Korean cultures and other cultures. Can Korean anthropologists present or speak out their experiences properly with the Western (translated) concepts and theories? Or do Western concepts and theories in Anthropology distort the experiences of Koreans? Or how do Western concepts and theories reframe Korean experiences into Western style?

Conference topic

Panel no. 89 - Rethinking East Asian Anthropologies in Historical Perspective

Preferred format

Oral



#104 Traditional Ecological Knowledge (T.E.K.) as Intellectual Legacies for Disaster Reduction and Prevention in Mongolian Nomadic Community

Takuya Soma from JP (soma.takuya.6z@kyoto-u.ac.jp) (Kyoto University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Traditional Ecological Knowledge (T.E.K.) as Intellectual Legacies for Disaster Reduction and Prevention in Mongolian Nomadic Community

Abstract text

Mongolian nomadic animal herders have been fostered precious knowledge for livelihood strategy, environmental adaptation, and survivability under extremely cold environment. So-called, traditional ecological knowledge (T.E.K.) is key clue to understand how nomadic people can adapt to the arid and cold places where normally scarce potential for agricultural production. The presentation will focus on practical use of locally fostered T.E.K. especially for disaster reduction and prevention for nomadic animal herding community in western Mongolia. Mongolian nomadic herders is coming to face not only severe environment, but also massive climate changes characterized frequent occurrence of winter disaster \"dzud\", wolf predatory, deterioration of pastureland biomass, and so on. In such a contemporary context, locally fostered T.E.K. is meant to be reevaluated as an active knowledge for disaster reduction/ prevention and sustainable community development. The author shows actual data collecting with 9 years of geographic and ethnographic works on nomadic herders communities in Ovs, Khovd, and Bayan-Ulgii Provinces. Especially, the presentation will discuss three points (P1~P3) below ; (P1) How a geographer is strongly committed into social necessity and requirement in the era of climate change, (P2) How a geographer is documenting so-called \"ethnography\" in the geographic fieldwork, (P3) How geography and anthology can collaborate in order to proceed same destination.

Conference topic

Panel no. 85 - Disasters as Transformation: The Anthropology-Geography Dialogues

Preferred format

Oral



#105 ETHNOMEDICINAL PRACTICES FOR ANIMAL BITES AMONG SAHARIAS OF MADHYA PRADESH - A PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE TRIBAL GROUP OF INDIA

Stuti Singh from IN (stuts0611@gmail.com) (Amity University Uttar Pradesh) , Roumi Deb from IN (rdev@amity.edu) (Amity University Uttar Pradesh) , Nishant Saxena from IN (nishant.7483@gmail.com) (ICMR-NIRTH)



Abstract

Abstract title

ETHNOMEDICINAL PRACTICES FOR ANIMAL BITES AMONG SAHARIAS OF MADHYA PRADESH - A PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE TRIBAL GROUP OF INDIA

Abstract text

In India 75 indigenous groups are categorized as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs). Saharia is one of the three PVTG’s in Madhya Pradesh. Due to their aboriginal nature, they are dependent on forests for their livelihood which results into encounter with lethal animal bites. At the same time, these tribes have a very prominent tradition of ethnomedicinal practices which is characterized by availability, acceptability, affordability and accessibility to community. Hence, tribals reach out to traditional healers for effective and instant treatment. They have vast knowledge about local medicinal plants and their application according to particular bite. Anthropologically, no attempts have been made to study traditional healers in Saharia tribe especially for animal bites. The present study is an exploratory one which aims to determine fate of traditional healing for animal bites in Saharia. Ethnographic approach was utilized to reach out to healer and their patient who availed treatment from them. The main crux of the finding is that for animal bites people immediately approach traditional healer who uses both herbal medicine and faith healing for cure. It was also experienced during fieldwork that majority of healers were not willing to share details of their ethnomedicine as they were afraid of its “misuse”. The public health professionals confirmed that tribals approach traditional healers first for animal bite. However, they also acknowledge there is no interaction between traditional healers and modern healthcare professional. We suppose, there is need for further in-depth studies exploring the issues in different tangents and bridging the gap.

Conference topic

Panel no. 58 - Coming of Age for the Traditional Medicine System of Indigenous Populations: Is Connecting the Unconnected the Way Forward?

Preferred format

Oral



#106 Anthropology of Community Forestry from Indigenous Knowledge to Enterprise development

Debashis Debnath from IN (ddebnathster@gmail.com) (Indian Institute of Forest Management (Retd.))



Abstract

Abstract title

Anthropology of Community Forestry from Indigenous Knowledge to Enterprise development

Abstract text

In the community forestry regime, the main thrust came into being with devolution of power to the primary stakeholders from the centralized and custodial state management regime on the basis of their traditional wisdom and indigenous knowledge system, starting from the species inventorization, participatory silviculture, biodiversity conservation, natural regeneration, livelihood strategies with the utility of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for the domestic and commercial requirement to eco-system services got the significance and importance. Later the NTFPs have become a big business around the globe. It is estimated that some US $ 90 billion worth of NTFPs are extracted every year. Further some US $ 11 billion worth of NTFPs are internationally traded within the national economies of the world and the rest 1/3 rd is consumed within the local village economies of the world in terms of employment. In the livelihoods development of the fringe-forest villages several interventions with various innovative approaches, followed by entrepreneurial skills for promoting NTFP based enterprises that could be managed profitably and sustainably by local communities and forest dependent households for sustainable economy and the environment with the help of natural resource management. Development of small and micro-enterprises provide the sustainable income sources from plantation, NTFPs including medicinal herbal-plants, eco-tourism and so on Attempts would be made in this paper to discuss the extension of family or community knowledge of various ethnic groups into the development of socio-economy and common property resources situation in the Anthropological perspective.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#107 The Naxalite Movements and Development Challenges in India: a Case Study of Odisha

Iswar Chandra Naik from IN (iswar.jnu@gmail.com) (KISS University)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Naxalite Movements and Development Challenges in India: a Case Study of Odisha

Abstract text

Over the years several industrial, mining and irrigation projects have come up in Odisha and it’s a failure on the part of government that it could not include the tribal and poor in the ensuing development. The Naxal movement in Odisha has so far managed to sustain itself because it successfully exploits the life of marginalized people in these areas. It has established a link between underdevelopment, regional imbalance, economic disparity and gun culture. The left-wing extremism problem has emerged as a major internal security challenge for India, described on several occasions as the “biggest internal security challenge” by the Prime Minister of the country. The extremists professing a pro-tribal outlook and with an avowed objective of overthrowing the present system of government through an armed revolution have been able to pose a serious governance and development challenge. Armed violence by these extremists, predominantly belonging to the Communist Party of India- Maoist (CPI-Maoist) (Annual Report 2011-12, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, p. 29.) peaked in 2009 when intelligence sources informed that they were active in almost 230 districts of the country, amounting to more than one third of India’s geographical area. Such areas witnessed large-scale violence targeting the state and what the Maoists describe as ‘state sympathizers’. However, the Naxal Movement in Odisha gained momentum and strengthened its position during the last two decades. The Naxal Groups attacked the corrupt bureaucrats, and targeted the exploitive businessmen and this led them to win over the local tribals.

Conference topic

Panel no. 73 - New Social Movements and Development: Perspectives from Global South

Preferred format

Oral



#109 Hazards as violence: towards a new geography of disasters

Ayesha Siddiqi from GB (as3017@cam.ac.uk) (University of Cambridge)



Abstract

Abstract title

Hazards as violence: towards a new geography of disasters

Abstract text

Debates examining disasters as natural hazards x social vulnerability have been influential in theorising disasters within human geography. While hazards into vulnerability frameworks enable analysis of a particular disaster 'event', they are less suitable for identifying long-term continuity or change. Work on disasters in communities dealing with conflict and underlying insecurity is providing robust evidence that requires rethinking and rewriting these debates. From insurgency affected Southern Philippines living with typhoons, to post-accord Colombia suffering from floods - these disasters are only the most recent manifestation of the long-standing violence inflicted on these communities by Imperial state and/or market forces. In the peripheries of the postcolonial state these typhoons, drought or floods cannot be seen as isolated processes: disasters caused by natural hazards intersecting with contexts of local vulnerability that led to transformation. Rather they must be seen as part of a much broader system of denial of rights and a history of Imperial domination and control. A system that spans the social and the natural, hegemonic forces and local resistance, and the past and the future. For my research respondents’ disasters are not experienced as one event that led to social or political transformation but rather as a messy continuum of marginalisation and brutalisation of dominant state and market forces.

Conference topic

Panel no. 85 - Disasters as Transformation: The Anthropology-Geography Dialogues

Preferred format

Oral



#110 Kurdish Identity and Swedish Football: articulating two symbolic fields into one

Tiago Duarte Dias from SE (tiago_ddias@hotmail.com) (Fluminense Federal University/Uppsala University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Kurdish Identity and Swedish Football: articulating two symbolic fields into one

Abstract text

Founded in 2004 in the city of Borlange, Dalkurd FF has managed to attract the attention of both Kurds, Swedes and others alike by their steep rise from the lowest part of the football pyramid to the Allsvenskan (top tier) in mere fourteen years of existence. Although they are currently playing the Superattan (2nd tier), the club still remains an important part of Swedish football, while at the same time, they also play an important role to the Kurdish diaspora population both in Sweden and abroad, which can be quite clearly noted by the choice of symbols used by the club that clearly relate to a Kurdish identity, while at the same time also using Swedish symbols and operating in a Swedish framework, under Swedish rules and norms. This article seeks to analyse the different ways in which Kurdish identity is or is not at play on Dalkurd FF, and how the discourse produced by the actors involved with the club articulates between Kurdishness, Swedishness, the local, and the transnational depending on the situation and the actors at play. How those articulations operate both in the discourse of fans, members and the people are important to understand the role that the club, as an institution, has on the daily lives of the people who compose it. And how the club and its members operate its different belongings vis-a-vis any given situation.

Conference topic

Panel no. 08 - Middle Eastern Encounters

Preferred format

Oral



#111 Third Plenary Session of CCP’s Eighteenth Central Committee Promotes Advancing the State Administration System -------YI Script and Governing Capacity Project

Zigen XIE from CN (59943984@qq.com) (Liangshan Education Foundation)



Abstract

Abstract title

Third Plenary Session of CCP’s Eighteenth Central Committee Promotes Advancing the State Administration System -------YI Script and Governing Capacity Project

Abstract text

The general goal of comprehensive reforms and to uae YI acient-modern scripts to help these new reforms are the research question of this paper. The reform marked China’s political/social affairs management have been transformed from “can govern” at past time into “good at to govern”. The transformation from management -guanli into governance -zhili means that the governmental functions and authorities will be defined more scientifically, With population about 9 million, Shimian Yi nation presents an aspect “most lived in mixed community, few lived in pure YI community” resident type, scattered or mixed Yi nation in SHIMIAN has bigger ratio than the YI nation in Da Xiao Liangshan Yi area. To research the LIZIPING Township Government’s behavior in rural social management in the scattered or mixed Yi ethnic area, my paper is trying to explore the new behavior of the Township Government through the modernization of the state administration system and governing capacity, which will give a positive affect for advancing the modernization of governing capacity in the scattered or mixed Yi ethnic area of SHIMIAN. This article takes Liziping town as the research site, I will present to the panel attending global scholars the relation between reform project and plan to syandardization of both ancient/modern YI script, and analyse the historical development of the Township Government’s behavior in social managemen, finalky I will discuss how the bi-libgual methods of YI-HAN translated documents could help the new reforms.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#113 Standardization of YI Script Plan and Cultivation of Psychological Quality of Middle School YI Students in SHIMIAN

Dezhi Shen from CN (agen_yi@126.com) (Shimian Minzu Middle School)



Abstract

Abstract title

Standardization of YI Script Plan and Cultivation of Psychological Quality of Middle School YI Students in SHIMIAN

Abstract text

Psychological quality related work not only affects the formation of YI students\\\' good quality and noble personality, but also indirectly affects the development of YI students and their intelligence. Due to the remoteness of minority areas in SHIMIAN and the great differences in culture and customs, the psychological quality of SHIMIAN Middle School students also needs to be cultivated according to the local actual situation. This paper analyzes the psychological status of SHIMIAN MINZU middle school students in minority SHIMIAN areas and puts forward feasible suggestions to promote the implementation of psychological quality education. I will focus on how to emply more classic YI medical books, and philosophical writings studies also ancient-modern books written in both standardized /older/style YI script, in our SHIMIAN Minzu Middle school\\\' new psychological research project.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#114 Expropriability as a class relation: everyday infrapolitics of debt in the UK

Ryan Davey from GB (ryan.davey@bristol.ac.uk) (University of Bristol)



Abstract

Abstract title

Expropriability as a class relation: everyday infrapolitics of debt in the UK

Abstract text

Household debt in Britain now exceeds its peak during the global financial crisis. However, public commentary still portrays those who turn away from their creditors as simply shirking their responsibilities. Stashing away unopened envelopes, leaving ringing telephones unanswered, or even hiding behind the sofa when debt collectors call, are all described as “burying your head in the sand.” This paper shows, instead, that such acts feature a complex political subjectivity where hopes intermingle with fears of enforcement. For those with debt problems living on a housing estate in southern England, their optimism often defends against the prospect of coercive legal force. This helps them to deflect, but not to dispute, the judgements of fault that enforcement carries. Hence they struggle to renegotiate what it is they truly owe. This unequal struggle over value arises from a discrepancy between the vulnerability of some to dispossessive legal force – or what I call their “expropriability” – and the capacity of others to administer it. I argue that this constitutes a kind of class relation. Whereas Marxian approaches centre on the social relations involved in industrial production, I propose that in post-industrial settings, class analysis should prioritise people’s relation to the means of legal coercion. The paper affirms Beverley Skeggs’ argument that class in Britain involves an unequal struggle over moral and economic value. It adds to this an examination of the involvement of legal coercion in the processes she describes.

Conference topic

Panel no. 20 - Contesting Household Debt: Politics, Infrapolitics, and the Political Economy of Debtor-Creditor Relations

Preferred format

Oral



#116 Neoclassical Structural-functionalism: Regarding Intangible Cultural Heritage as an Endogenetic Drive in Modern Industrial Development

Ni Lu from CN (lunizhou@foxmail.com) (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) , Jijiao Zhang from CN (lunizhou@foxmail.com) (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)



Abstract

Abstract title

Neoclassical Structural-functionalism: Regarding Intangible Cultural Heritage as an Endogenetic Drive in Modern Industrial Development

Abstract text

The protection and utilization of intangible cultural heritage have always been one of the focus issues in academia. We investigated the industrialization of intangible cultural heritage with Tuoluo Cake, Daqiao Gherkin, Exocarpium Citri Grandis Culture and Wuchuan Mooncake as typical cases in Maoming and Zhanjiang. To analysis the examples with the Neoclassical Structural-Functionalism theory, the intangible cultural heritage could transform and therefore to be discovered, to stimulate the growth of the local modern industry as an endogenetic drive. The utilization of intangible cultural heritage can not only enable a small-scale family workshop to tend to entrepreneurialism but also form various competitive regional modern industrial chains and clusters, to make the best effort of intangible cultural heritage.

Conference topic

Panel no. 25 - Looking for New Analytical Frameworks in the Study of Cultural Heritage and Modernization

Preferred format

Oral



#118 A comparative anthropology of circulation: the sociality of ‘nomadism’ among Brazilian Calon and Romanian Rom

Martin Fotta from DE (Fotta@em.uni-frankfurt.de) (Goethe University) , Ana Chiritoiu from HU (ana.chiritoiu@gmail.com) (CEU)



Abstract

Abstract title

A comparative anthropology of circulation: the sociality of ‘nomadism’ among Brazilian Calon and Romanian Rom

Abstract text

In Europe and Americas alike, the state, activists and scholars have variously used the notion of ‘nomadism’ as the major diacritical sign to institute Romani difference and justify interventions as varied as exclusion, assimilation, paternalism, or multicultural recognition. Our ethnographic material from Romania and Brazil suggests, however, that ‘nomadism’ is not a concept emic to the Romanies, even when they describe themselves as being ‘on the move’. We argue, firstly, that ‘nomadism’ only exists in a locally concrete and historically specific form, as a way through which existing non-Gypsy organisation of space – e.g. colonial settlement, national borders, or ways geography is imagined in relation to ‘nomads’ – is assimilated into Romani sociality. Secondly, being in motion is not primarily a spatial notion, but a thoroughly social one: the Romanies move in space only insofar as they move among people, whether strangers or kin. Although both the Romanian Rom and the Brazilian Calon exult circulation as an inherent trait and put little value on being sedentary, the concrete ways in which these groups move about are in no way immanent to their ‘identity’, but instead are contingent upon the available modes and possibilities to get by. Lastly, we argue that movement or circulation in its various forms (including stillness) is thus not a privileged strategy of ‘alterotopy’ (Ciavolella), of spatial autonomy or of resistance to the ever-encroaching state, but a practice for the material and symbolic social reproduction of Romanies in the context of their dispersal among non-Gypsies.

Conference topic

Panel no. 10 - Lost in Representation: Changes and Paradoxes in the Nomads' Life

Preferred format

Oral



#119 Transnational lives: Essentialism in the Construction of National Identity

Sofia Poulia from GR (poulia.sofia@gmail.com) (Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb)



Abstract

Abstract title

Transnational lives: Essentialism in the Construction of National Identity

Abstract text

This research paper follows the life history of a Greek-Croatian family of four, whose members have spent their lifetime across multiple nation states. Through their personal biographical narrations issues of national identification and distinction are discussed in the broader context of Othering and Belonging. Thus, prominence is given to the use of essentializing tools in producing homogenized auto- and hetero- representations, implying a particular essence for national groups. Concurrently, emphasis is put on the establishment of geopolitical entities with an essentialized meaning and their symbolic classification in the so-called process of mental mapping. In this light, essentialism is closely connected with inclusion and exclusion, as well as with the (re)production of the Others. As historical subjects being influenced by more than one nation state, the narrations of the members of the family encompass diverse essentializing discourses that contribute to the construction of their hybrid national identity. Above all, the findings mentioned in this paper underline the persistent, as it appears to be, power of essentialism and raise considerable questions on the significance of boundaries in contemporary societies despite the socioeconomic shifts of the emerging globalized world.

Conference topic

Panel no. 81 - Essentialism in Deprecatory Expressions of the Other: Comparing Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Examples with Those of the Early 21st Century

Preferred format

Oral



#120 Spread of institutions and ideas on human rights issues in the supply chain

Kanae Teramoto from JP (kteram11@reitaku-u.ac.jp) (Reitaku University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Spread of institutions and ideas on human rights issues in the supply chain

Abstract text

Recently, human rights issues in the supply chain are one of the important issues for companies. The human rights issue in the supply chain has the following three features. One is that resource constraints. The human rights issues does not make profits. The second is that it is not possible to finish with just your own company's efforts. Problems of other companies in the supply chain will be pointed out as their own problems. Third, there is no competition between companies. Given these characteristics, it is reasonable for companies to corporate on supply chain human rights issues. The purpose of this study is to clarify how ideas and behaviors spread to address human rights issues, and to clarify the functions of corporate groups in such situations. In 2003, GCNJ(Global Compact Network Japan) was launched in Japan. Companies that are members of the Global Compact can participate in the working group, which called “Bunka-kai”. Supply chain issues are shared and discussed to resolve the issues. The working group was formed in 2008. Initially there were only 11 participants, but there are now more than 130. Research method is participant observations and interview and research target is the working group, “supply chain Bunka-kai”. These following features were found. First, social capital build among members. One of the members called this meeting "adult seminar". Other members said that they are companions who trust each other. It was found that the norm of “for the others” was inherited.

Conference topic

Panel no. 26 - Enterprise Anthropology: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives

Preferred format

Oral



#121 Saline Foodscape of the Island of Pag: White Gold of the Adriatic Sea

Melanija Belaj from HR (melanija@belaj.com) (Institut za etnologiju i folkloristiku)



Abstract

Abstract title

Saline Foodscape of the Island of Pag: White Gold of the Adriatic Sea

Abstract text

By understanding foodscape as a theoretical framework and as a “dynamic social construct that connects food with physical space, social groups or individuals and the meanings they attach to it” (Adema 2008; Belasco, Scranton 2002; Johnston, Baumann 2014, Jackson and CONANX Group 2013), I will try to understand the meaning of some food products (lamb, cheese, salt) of the Island of Pag which can be recognized as symbols of the Mediterranean diet as well as the identity heritage markers of the island. In this presentation, I will focus on the production and distribution of salt in the salt factory attached to the town of Pag which goes back to the distant past. Cultural and anthropological perspective will help me to understand and show the influence of the salt factory to the local community in the past but also in present days.

Conference topic

Panel no. 23 - Mediterranean Foodscapes: (New) Models of Sociability and Sustainability

Preferred format

Oral



#123 Tides of Change: Introduction

Martina Bofulin from SI (martina.bofulin@zrc-sazu.si) (ZRC SAZU)



Abstract

Abstract title

Tides of Change: Introduction

Abstract text

Introductory paper is of threefold nature. First, it will present a general reflection on the coastal areas across the globe that are becoming a place of rapid transformations due to climate change and emergence of the new development priorities through an emphasis on industrialization, offshore energy and tourism. Most affected by these forces are the indigenous and local populations, including fisher folk that may see the disappearance of their way of life and their sense of place. Secondly, it will reflect on the role of existing or emerging heritage discourses in the coastal areas (or the lack thereof), and on the contingent processes that these discourses may produce ranging from community empowerment to dispossession of local inhabitants. Thirdly, it will present papers included in the panel in order to stimulate the concluding discussion and highlight some of the crucial issues coastal areas and their inhabitants are facing today.

Conference topic

Panel no. 95 - The Tides of Change: Living Off and With Heritage on the Coast

Preferred format

Oral



#124 Youth, Media and Culture in Digital Era: An overview

Manoj Kumar Behera from IN (manojkrbehera@gmail.com) (Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences)



Abstract

Abstract title

Youth, Media and Culture in Digital Era: An overview

Abstract text

Media in the 21st century are shifting when, where, what, and how young people understand. Educators, researchers, and parents weep this reality; but youth, media culture, and learning nevertheless remain entangled in a rich set of relationships and anxities in the contemporary digital era. These relationships and the anxieties they generate are not new; they repeat worries about the consequences of young people’s media attachments that have been around for decades. These anxieties first appeared in response to the fear that violence, vulgarity, and sexual desire in early popular culture was thought to pose to culture. Further, Media education speaks how various media operate in and through particular institutions, technologies, texts, and audiences in an effort to affect how young people learn and involve with media culture. These developments have been enhanced by a rising interest in a broad project of literacy. As we have come to read and write media differently in a digital era, however, a new set of problems have arisen that affect how media cultures are understood in relation to learning. Among these issues is how a participatory turn in media culture allows others, including corporations, governments, and predatory individuals, to monitor, survey, coordinate, and guide our activities as never earlier. Critical media literacy education addresses this context and continues to provide a framework to report the future of youth, media culture and learning.

Conference topic

Panel no. 03 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#125 Following mullet and seabass: Movement, stasis and borders in the North Adriatic

Nataša Rogelja Caf from SI (natasa.rogelja@zrc-sazu.si) (ZRC SAZU) , Primož Pipan from SI (primoz.pipan@zrc-sazu.si) (ZRC SAZU)



Abstract

Abstract title

Following mullet and seabass: Movement, stasis and borders in the North Adriatic

Abstract text

This paper continues some of the earlier discussions of the human relationships with the sea and the connection sea creatures have for human cultures. Applying the influential approach of “following the thing” to the North Adriatic, we focus on two fish species that have important role in economic as well as heritage-making processes in the region: Piranꞌs mullet, a “migratory” fish linked with local tradition, and “sedentary” seabass from fish ponds set in the Bay of Piran (Slovenia). We follow their movements from their habitat to the plate by paying attention to numerous meanders that these two fish make in the commodity chains. We bring into the discussion different actors, institutions and items connected to mullet and seabass – the fisherman, the traders, the restaurants, the supermarkets and final consumers as well as museums, postcards, stamps and webpages. Through this analysis, we argue that these two fish species assume an important role in the local understandings of identity and history and can also highlight the heritage-making processes within the North Adriatic commenting on historical legacies, politics, economy and individual practices along the present day Slovenian coast.

Conference topic

Panel no. 95 - The Tides of Change: Living Off and With Heritage on the Coast

Preferred format

Oral



#126 Coworking in Slovenia between ideals and the condition of smallness

Miha Kozorog from SI (miha.kozorog@zrc-sazu.si) (ZRC SAZU / University of Ljubljana)



Abstract

Abstract title

Coworking in Slovenia between ideals and the condition of smallness

Abstract text

This paper is based on ethnographic collaboration with a few young entrepreneurs in various parts of Slovenia, who have as part of their business initiatives created coworking hubs. Slovenia is small in many aspects: it has a total area of 20,000 square kilometers and has a population of about two million; the largest city, the capital, has approximately 270,000 inhabitants, the second largest has 100,000, but most have less than 10,000 inhabitants. In the perception of many young entrepreneurs, smallness is an important specificity of the Slovenian economy. Nonetheless, in most parts of the country, spaces for coworking have been created, privately and publicly. However, this was very much an idealistic project, because the condition of smallness has proven as inhibition for successful coworking. Still, young entrepreneurs don’t want to give up, therefore, they’ve been inventing new models that combine coworking with other kinds of activities in order to make their business-intended venues sustainable. This paper explores broader social conditions of making co-working popular in Slovenia as well as coworking initiators' division between an imagined future and real possibilities of the Slovenian environment.

Conference topic

Panel no. 15 - Coming of Age as Entrepreneurs: Biopolitics and Ethics of Youth in Modern-Day Economies

Preferred format

Oral



#127 Expectations in wait In a prison in the Province of Buenos Aires

Carolina Emilia Di Próspero from AR (diprosper@gmail.com) (CONICET / IDAES-UNSAM)



Abstract

Abstract title

Expectations in wait In a prison in the Province of Buenos Aires

Abstract text

In a prison in the Province of Buenos Aires a public university, as an agency of the state, assumes in 2008 the task of reducing the situation of social vulnerability of a marginalized group. My paper is a part of an ethnographic study about practices and meanings in the appropriation of educational rights in a context of criminal imprisonment from the approach of learning experiences of social actors involved not only in a pedagogical project, but in an individual and social transformation. The students of the university center have life trajectories linked to poverty, exclusions, illegality, they come from slums where experiment conditions of global capitalism and also constitute places typically imbued with dominant discourses and practices: with control and security as elements present in everyday life. In that context they socialize and make their suits: metaphorical way of calling the crime culture in which they grow up. Access to educational rights impacts with speeches, practices, knowledge with which to make new clothes, forms and resources to reach new social existence: to dress agin. When studients say they already had the new suit on, they understood that, if a recipe to “achieve transformation” had been naturalized by the educational programme speeches, they had assumed that speech and now they expected the promises to be fulfilled, they expected that transformation made new living conditions. The proposal of this work is to approach those expectations from the point of view of the actors involved: the imprisoned students.

Conference topic

Panel no. 09 - Youth, Crime and Marginality in Europe and Beyond

Preferred format

Oral



#128 Multiple temporalities within modern infrastructure development in Malaita Island, Solomon Islands (Melanesia)

Daisaku Hashizume from JP (d.hashizume@gmail.com) (Waseda University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Multiple temporalities within modern infrastructure development in Malaita Island, Solomon Islands (Melanesia)

Abstract text

Creating automobile road across tropical rain forest is thought to be very typical project of modernity. Modern people often assume that modern infrastructure development can convert wild jungle into tamed one; potential resources for human activity. However more and more anthropologists start to be aware that such viewpoint is based on western nature/culture dichotomy which excludes humanity from nature. In other places like Melanesia, which has "No Nature, No Culture" (Marilyn Strathern), road building project can be situated in a totally different situation. This presentation focuses on indigenous socio-natural arrangement of road building in Melanesia. Recently local people in West Fataleka area, Malaita Island, Solomon Islands (Melanesia) have interested in extending carriageway to their home land. They negotiate with Asian logging companies to let them make forest road, then start new settlements in the land cleared by chainsaw. Why do they want to develop their ancestral places which were abandoned and tabooed by Christianized generation again? And what is happening when they face with their past? On surface, road building project looks like capitalistic development which accords with singular temporality of modernity. However, on the ground level, multiple temporalities imbue such an infrastructure making. Presenter will report on some ethnographic data and look at their critical implication for our own association about "Mobility".

Conference topic

Panel no. 56 - Mobilities and Materialities: Body, Infrastructure, and Environment

Preferred format

Oral



#129 An anthropological approach to travel encounters

Cecilia Guimarães Bastos from BR (ceciliagbastos@gmail.com) (UFRJ)



Abstract

Abstract title

An anthropological approach to travel encounters

Abstract text

In this presentation, I analyse the potential of travel as opportunities of self-knowledge and involvement with others, as well as leading to critical distance when it comes to everyday values and ideas. I explore its symbolic meanings, in the sense of secular rituals and ruptures with the ordinary. Seeing encounters as a driving force behind the relationship between different cultures, this presentation looks at it from an anthropological perspective. Besides involving the commercialisation of certain aspects of a community’s ethos as tourist attractions, the relationship between residents and visitors has a considerable cultural impact, thus I understand that social differences, in some cases, are accentuated by changes in local habits and customs. On the other hand, I notice that this relationship also consists of the rescuing of old traditions and the renewing of local cultures, by the stimulation of creativity and innovation. I understand that such potentiality for (self) transformation might involve a more comprehensive notion of what has been studied in the field of encounters between the self and other and, therefore, I argue that a socio-anthropological approach to travel requires a deeper understanding of these relationships.

Conference topic

Panel no. 31 - The Potentiality of Encounters

Preferred format

Oral



#130 Research on the transformation of governance model from structure to action under the background of risk society

shanshan Qiao from CN (462390340@qq.com) (Guizhou Minzu University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Research on the transformation of governance model from structure to action under the background of risk society

Abstract text

In the social governance system of the binary opposition between the government and the society, the structural social governance model of standardized management is highly praised. With the rapid increase of social complexity and uncertainty, China has entered a risk society, and the government's response to complex social problems lags behind. The emergence of independent governance actions of social organizations has broken the situation that the government is the only governance subject of the society, and the integration of government and society has replaced the binary opposition between them. The choice of risk system must pay attention to the differences and multi-party coordination design, and the government and social organizations cooperative governance model. The activism thinking that system serves for action and action precedes system is used in the model of risk social cooperative governance. The government is no longer limited to the pursuit of efficiency. The government and social organizations achieve an effective response to social risks in an equal form of cooperative governance.

Conference topic

Panel no. 25 - Looking for New Analytical Frameworks in the Study of Cultural Heritage and Modernization

Preferred format

Oral



#131 "Values and Orientation Courses" for Refugees in Austria as Sites of Encounter

Hannah Rose Myott from AT (h.myott@gmail.com) (University of Vienna) , Mina Vasileva from AT (mina.vasileva@outlook.at) (University of Vienna)



Abstract

Abstract title

"Values and Orientation Courses" for Refugees in Austria as Sites of Encounter

Abstract text

In the wake of the so-called “refugee crisis,” the Austrian government enacted a new “Integration Act” in 2017. This law, among other things, requires refugees to take one 8-hour “Values and Orientation Course” (Werte- und Orientierungskurs). These courses are supposed to teach participants about Austrian history, law, and customs, and place particular emphasis on topics such as gender equality, LGBTQ rights, and secularism. By design, refugees may only take the course after being legally granted asylum--a process that often takes years. This, coupled with the fact that the first concept for such courses dates back to 2009 or even earlier, highlights the symbolic nature of such a policy. We carried out fieldwork among refugees and other related institutions such as the primary organizing institute, the Austrian Integration Fund (ÖIF), and an Austrian ministry responsible for integration programs. One focal point of our research was not only to look into the policies, politics, institutions, and organizational actors, but also the perspectives of individuals who are directly affected by the policy. Through interviews, participant observation, and document analysis, we found that the course curriculum creates an essentialized “Austrianness” that is placed against an imagined, homogenous “refugeeness” -- in other words, a non-Austrian identity. The encounter between these imagined differences that are produced and reproduced by the courses serve to “other” the refugees, contributing to existing power asymmetries. Although just one example of numerous European “integration” measures, these courses serve as a window into understanding encounters between narratives of “Austrianness” and “refugeeness.”

Conference topic

Panel no. 08 - Middle Eastern Encounters

Preferred format

Oral



#132 The potentiality of uncertainty: Polish post 2004-migrants’ encounters with the Other

Anna Horolets from PL (a.horolets@uw.edu.pl) (University of Warsaw)



Abstract

Abstract title

The potentiality of uncertainty: Polish post 2004-migrants’ encounters with the Other

Abstract text

In the proposed paper, I draw on the material collected during the fieldwork in the West Midlands, UK, in 2010-2011, the moment when new migrations from Poland to the UK have been ongoing for 6 years already, but the experience of migration was still rather novel for most of my interlocutors, and there was no sight of either the migration crisis or Brexit. My aim is to demonstrate how my interlocutors, Polish post-2004 migrants, made sense of the encounters with racially different Other – the neighbours, co-workers, patrons and clients of Pakistani, Indian and Caribbean ancestry. I place at the centre of my theoretical argument the notion of uncertainty, which has been made a signature mark of sociological theorizing on late modernity. The ethnographic evidence I would like to present suggest, however, that alongside contributing to ‘risk society’, uncertainty also creates potentialities for discovering new modes of relating to the Other. Uncertainty, understood as one of the faces of ignorance, can be seminal for reaching out to the Other in unexpected ways. I will discuss the tension between the racialized public and semi-public discourses on the novel and unknown Other and the hybridity of the individual ways of relating to the Other that are sometimes difficult to articulate but that are nevertheless highly meaningful. The uncertainty about the Other and one’s own relation to them, I claim, opens up potentiality of actually encountering the Other, instead of merely passing them by, even if this potentiality is volatile.

Conference topic

Panel no. 31 - The Potentiality of Encounters

Preferred format

Oral



#133 Imagining hunger: sovereignty, hunger strikes and experience of famine in Northern Ireland, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

Magdalena Tendera from PL (magdalena.tendera@gmail.com) (Jagiellonian University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Imagining hunger: sovereignty, hunger strikes and experience of famine in Northern Ireland, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

Abstract text

Future has never been certain: water and food shortages, wars, conflicts, mass migration and the human activity that profoundly impacts the environment display modern famines as something much more than mere environmental catastrophes. Post-modern theories of famine investigate it as a failure of accountability and deliberate political strategies. Politics permanently interferes with the environment but its devastation is likely to cause mass starvations - this way future directly informs present actions. The permanently expected food scarcity shall draw our attention to the contemporary strategies that adopt hunger symbolism for various purposes, e. g. in the struggle for independence. Legacies of famines and asymmetries in power result in various food supply/accountability patterns that shape social classes and national patterns of wealth and power distribution across the globe. And „contrary to the popular imagery of war, hunger is a far greater killer than military action or disease, though it interacts with both” (Cribb, Food or war, 2019:1). Moreover, hunger drastically changed the symmetry of power in Ireland, in the Maze Prison in 1981 during the Troubles. Similar shift took place when Oleg Sentsov became Ukrainian POW in a Russian prison. By using hunger strikes he was challenging social hierarchies of post-semi-colonial societies that paradoxically became the preconditions for building modern nation states at the peripheries of Europe. Here, the fight for identity, sovereignty and state in Northern Ireland, Ukraine and Kazakhstan will be presented from the analytical perspective of comparative politics to investigate how the past was used to build a future.

Conference topic

Panel no. 45 - Whose Future Is It? Temporality and Asymmetric Politics in Times of Uncertainty

Preferred format

Oral



#134 Standardization of Yi Script Plan and Improvement of Bilingual -education-teaching -materials for Discipline Humanities of Type One Model School

Gaga JIBU from CN (723521905@qq.com) (Xide Yi Minority Middle School) , Weizhe LUOWU from CN (723521905@qq.com) (Mianning County Yumashan Primary School) , Ga Elizabeth WU from CN (723521905@qq.com) (Liangshan Education Foundation) , Zigen XIE from CN (723521905@qq.com) (Liangshan Education Foundation) , Tianrong YANG from CN (723521905@qq.com) (Xide Yi Minority Middle School) , Teng ZHAO from CN (723521905@qq.com) (Chengdu University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Standardization of Yi Script Plan and Improvement of Bilingual -education-teaching -materials for Discipline Humanities of Type One Model School

Abstract text

Our paper addresses following 8 aspects: 1-In August 1980, the state council in China officially approved the standardization plan for Yi script which was based on the SHIZHA dialect of the northern Yi dialect, based on the XIDE county pronunciation. 2-A word with only one sound, a sound only match a word, the total script were numbered 819,it is a syllabic script, adding the second high tone, the actual total scripts were 1165 words. 3-Type one Model School in Liangshan is where the YI language is offered as a main subject while the rest of the subjects are taught in Chinese language. 4-In 1978, a systematic and large-scale bilingual education system of type one/two models which were established in Liangshan. 5-The implementation of bilingual education were widely supported by government, schools, teachers and parents. 6-The Liangshan prefecture compilation and translation bureau together have published the Yi language teaching textbooks and teaching materials for Yi students, which basically meets the needs of local Yi/Han bilingual teaching. 7-Since the establishment of the Yi literature textbook compilation office in Liangshan YI nationality prefecture in 1977, about 1070 kinds of Yi written-language textbooks and assisting-reference books for primary and secondary schools have been compiled. In 2019, among which about 600 are for the discipline of the humanities. 8-But there is still a shortage of readings, especially for the high school YI students. In this paper I will argue how the compilation of bilingual teaching materials still need to be improved, especially from multi-disciplinary perspective.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#135 The rise of China Cloud: data, state, sovereignty

Darcy Pan from SE (darcy.pan@socant.su.se) (Stockholm University)



Abstract

Abstract title

The rise of China Cloud: data, state, sovereignty

Abstract text

This paper focuses on—the Cybersecurity Law— an important piece of legislation, which came into effect in China in 2017, that aims to regulate and shape the cloud geographies both inside and beyond China. Based on anthropological fieldwork on the construction of Apple’s data center in Guizhou, Southwest China, this paper discusses how this construction project is not only a direct material consequence of this legislation but also illustrates the further consolidation of Chinese state power in the cloud. This paper discusses the conditions that facilitate the political, economic and policy processes that enable Apple’s project. These processes include the intangible infrastructures such as the creation of relevant policies, bureaucratic institutions, and the legal framework set up to regulate the cloud industry and the increasing numbers of Internet users in China. One important principle of the Cybersecurty Law is that it restricts the movement of data and requires data localization. This law clearly shows that the Chinese government has stepped up measures to monitor and control the domestic cyberspace while adamantly asserting its cyber-sovereignty on the global arena. It has led to the localization of global cloud giants such as Apple. This paper wishes to highlight the materiality of the cloud against the popular notion that the Internet operates in a seamless and stateless fashion. By zooming in on Guizhou, this essay aims to show that the emerging data center industry and implementation of Apple’s data center is part of the broader process of policy making and state-building.

Conference topic

Panel no. 21 - An Anthropology of Policy: Legacies and Future Challenges

Preferred format

Oral



#136 Sudanese Industrial Sound: Sonic Labour in a Truck Workshop

Valerie Hänsch from DE (valerie.haensch@ethnologie.lmu.de) (LMU Munich)



Abstract

Abstract title

Sudanese Industrial Sound: Sonic Labour in a Truck Workshop

Abstract text

This short video explores the relationship between manual labour, sound and rhythm among Sudanese lorry-blacksmiths who are specialised in modifying the English Bedford truck. The master craftsman Abd al-Ghani and his crew sometimes create rhythms by hammering specific patterns of beats to animate and cheer them in their forging. During an ethnographic research project, he said: “The rhythm we create with the hammer is like music for us. You hear it like music in your heart and it gives you enthusiasm for the work.” It is the created rhythm that supports control of and immersion into work and keeps up the workflow. Sonic labour is playful rhythmisation that provides both enthusiasm for arduous work and steady bodily movement and concerted coordination. In the short video, I have mixed and remixed different types and episodes of ‘musical’ forging in Abd al-Ghani’s workshop into a web of Sudanese industrial sound.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#138 Anthropology’s Special Competence, Then, Now, and Future

Dorothy K. Billings from US (dorothy.billings@wichita.edu) (Wichita State University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Anthropology’s Special Competence, Then, Now, and Future

Abstract text

Is the legacy of anthropology one of observation and understanding or one of trying to “help,” achieve change that “improves” life by somebody’s standards, from someone’s point of view. Have anthropologists, as representatives of a discipline, accepted the view that there is a major generational separation now or just ahead of us, and that these changes can be evaluated? I would like to discuss this view proposed in our Theme for this inter-congress from the point of view of several legacies of anthropological research the categories of kinship, social organization, political and legal organization, economic systems, subsistence activities, the arts, language; and the histories of change, persistence and stability. I will note the distinction between applied anthropology, which used outsider views of progress; and “Action Anthropology”, as defined by Sol Tax, which focused on indigenous views.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#139 An anthropological study on the relationship between nature and humans based on Northern Andean folktales

Yuki Furukawa from JP (rising-sun02@hotmail.co.jp) (the University of Ritsumei)



Abstract

Abstract title

An anthropological study on the relationship between nature and humans based on Northern Andean folktales

Abstract text

This presentation pursues the relationship between nature and humans from the perspective of indigenous knowledge in the northern Andean Mountains. In this society, indigenous knowledge is condensed into “folktales”. As this was a society without writing in the pre-Spanish period, it is its oral folktales that convey wisdom and history. The mountains, hills, lakes, rivers, and rocky areas are accompanied by folktales, and the folktales are filled with the images and imagination of the natural world held by the people of this land. For example, there are folktales about the origin of rocks and hills with the motif of humans and animals; in these folktales, mountains are endowed with personality and get angry and sad. Other tales talk about the hardships and dedication of the long-suffering local administrators. The environment has been experiencing changes in the Andes in recent years. Global warming has reduced about 22 percent of glaciers in the past 35 years in the Andes, causing severe water shortages in the mountains. Furthermore, due to the Peruvian government’s policy of attracting foreign-affiliated companies, mine development is underway in rural areas of the mountains, causing fear of water pollution in rivers and lakes. The indigenous knowledge condensed into ancient narratives in the Andes can teach us how to relate to nature and how to address recent changes and destruction of the natural environment. This study analyzes the folktales to access and make sense of such knowledge.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#140 Enrichment of Environmental Education through a revitalization of Indigenous knowledge system

Neelam - Khare from IN (neelamkhareedu1953@gmail.com) (Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sci)



Abstract

Abstract title

Enrichment of Environmental Education through a revitalization of Indigenous knowledge system

Abstract text

In the process of Sustainable development and globalization, Environmental education (EE) makes organized efforts to teach environmental and natural resources management in a multi-disciplinary field. EE is vital in imparting an inherent respect for nature amongst society and in enhancing public environmental awareness. The term often implies education within the school system, from primary to post-secondary. There are also ways that EE is taught through awareness generation and socialization process among the public about the environment in the formal or informal way. The transmission of the Indigenous knowledge system (IKS) or local wisdom is the oral media at the micro-environment level and to very small extent this is recorded. So what we have been able to preserve and conserve to a very little extent and rather this is facing challenge to threaten its preservation and consequently it begins to be eroded by the development of modern and globalized technology, which has adoption process of innovation and the diffusion of technology adoption. The time has come to develop method and planning that would be applied in this revitalization. In the process to design of revitalization and preservation of local wisdom, it is required to develop the course curriculum in the EE for transmission of IKS in the formal way. Attempt has been made to present the research at the school level in enriching EE in a district of the Madhya Pradesh state in India.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#141 Capitalism on the couch: The creation and consequences of the Indebted Subject Position in the 'Greek Debt Crisis' of 2010

Christian Schirmer from DE (Schirmec@students.uni-marburg.de) (Philipps-Universität Marburg)



Abstract

Abstract title

Capitalism on the couch: The creation and consequences of the Indebted Subject Position in the 'Greek Debt Crisis' of 2010

Abstract text

The following paper is to be considered an anthropological investigation of subjectivity and subject positions after the Greek Debt Crisis after 2010 until today.Signs of the subjective condition that Maurizio Lazzarato calls the Indebted Man can be traced within the ethnographic accounts of Greece during the ongoing struggle revolving around the manifold issues that were raised during that period. Among others, a focus on the subject reveals that an inscription of the debt into the indebted subject’s bodies, a drastic shift in the perception of temporality and time, as well as strong moralization of the condition of indebtedness are present in the ethnographic accounts that are reviewed here. Despite a broad agreement with a lot of David Graeber’s basic premises this paper argues along the lines of Maurizio Lazzarato that our current mode of capitalist production and domination eludes Graeber’s categories in respect to the nature of debt as a power apparatus that captures our subject positions. Therefore, our previous assumptions about the Debtor-Creditor need to be rethought. Today, capitalism is characterized by one key feature: Debt constitutes capitalism’s Lacanian Real. Through this assessment a focus on subjectivity and the subject position as an anthropological tool of investigation emerges. This emphasis, according to this paper, can serve as a starting point to reconsider the ethnographic material gathered after the Greek debt Crisis after 2011 on the basis of new theoretical assessments on the complexities of debt and neoliberalism’s modes of coercion.

Conference topic

Panel no. 20 - Contesting Household Debt: Politics, Infrapolitics, and the Political Economy of Debtor-Creditor Relations

Preferred format

Oral



#142 Conceptualisation and Contextualisation of New Farmers Movement in India

birendra suna from IN (bir.suna25@gmail.com) (KISS Deemed to be University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Conceptualisation and Contextualisation of New Farmers Movement in India

Abstract text

The paper will inquiry three questions namely first, the revisit of concept and context from peasant to farmers movement, second origin of new farmers movement and finally the intensity of the new farmers movement in India. The farmers movement is a collective action in the existing societies and since ages it is due to severe exploitation, oppression, mutilation of rights over land, imposition of new taxes on the products. During pre-colonial era farmers were struggled against the landlords and the zamindars and during colonial regime, it’s because of the feudal lords’ nexus with the foreign rulers. The context is that formers is a social group, who survives in subsistence level and cease from new market forces. The 1970s of green revolution, after adoption of the liberalisation and privatisation policy through the globalisation agenda, the farmers of India with introduction of new technology the rich farmers have received government subsidies. The landless and marginal farmers are strangulated each successive government plans. The rich farmers have led the new farmers movement (NFM) in India to get minimum support price (MSP) which has not been given to all farm products. The new leadership has been emerged during 1990’s to reconceptualise the farmer’s grievances. The delegates have taken few demonstratable and considerable corrective measures by which the farmers received little relaxation. According to Sainath (2009), nearly 2 lakhs farmers committed suicide since India signed up to World Trade Organization agreements. It shows that farmers in India are asphyxiated through various new policies and programmes.

Conference topic

Panel no. 73 - New Social Movements and Development: Perspectives from Global South

Preferred format

Oral



#143 Material Infrastructure in Border-crossing: the case of wartime migration in South Sudan-Ugandan borderland

Isao Murahashi from JP (imurahashi328@yahoo.co.jp) (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)



Abstract

Abstract title

Material Infrastructure in Border-crossing: the case of wartime migration in South Sudan-Ugandan borderland

Abstract text

This presentation aims to discuss how the material infrastructure can facilitate and control the border-crossing of people between South Sudan and Uganda, taking the case of wartime cross-border migration in South Sudan-Ugandan borderlands. African borderlands, including South Sudan-Ugandan borderland, have the long history of the cross-border migration for trade, labor migration and schooling. Consequently, the social network in borderland community that facilitates the movement of people, goods and information, has been formed. Once civil wars or regional conflicts broke out, local people fled to neighboring countries across the border. After the end of 2013, this borderland witnessed a mass influx of South Sudanese into Northern Uganda due to the new civil war in South Sudan. In a mass exodus, the border plays a pivotal role in facilitating, controlling and managing the movement of people, goods and information. This presentation focuses on how human movements in border-crossings are entangled with the material infrastructure, information technologies and geographical environments. What this presentation, in particular, addresses is summarized as below; 1) Patterns of cross-border migration, both in peacetime and wartime, and its historical trends (ethnicity, gender, age, individual or family, short or long term), 2) The material infrastructure, including roads and means of transport, but also, communications, transport technologies and financial infrastructure, such as mobile networks, that facilitate the cross-border mobility of people, goods and information, 3) The bodily experiences in border-crossings including the geographical landscape that facilitates or hinders human movement.

Conference topic

Panel no. 56 - Mobilities and Materialities: Body, Infrastructure, and Environment

Preferred format

Oral



#144 CIVIC ENGAGEMENT ON PERMAFROST. Evaluating Collaborative Architectural Making as a Tool for Provoking Civic Placemaking Initiatives in Yakutsk, North-Eastern Siberia

Maiia Sivtseva from GB (sivtsevama@gmail.com) (London Metropolitan University)



Abstract

Abstract title

CIVIC ENGAGEMENT ON PERMAFROST. Evaluating Collaborative Architectural Making as a Tool for Provoking Civic Placemaking Initiatives in Yakutsk, North-Eastern Siberia

Abstract text

This thesis assesses the possibilities of collaborative architectural making as a tool for provoking civic placemaking initiatives in the city of Yakutsk, located in North-Eastern Siberia. The way in which the city has expanded and developed through time has been affected by the permafrost landscape of the Subarctic; the socio-cultural context of its nomadic people and the Russian and Soviet military and mining incursions. This has created a unique cultural and climatic framework. The particular question which the research addresses is to what extent can collaborative architectural making contribute to the development of civic places in the context of (a) permafrost and severely cold winter conditions (b) the changing socio-cultural context. In order to address this question, the research methods include an archive study and drawing analysis of the Yakutsk City urban structure beyond its natural thresholds through the early independent nomadic, Russian Imperial, Soviet Union and modern periods; a survey of the unique civic infrastructure of the city such as its centralised district heating pipe system that is raised above the ground on stilts. The findings will create a basis for speculative design proposals which will be tested through facilitating of the community initiatives in Yakutsk. The main research findings will contribute to knowledge of architectural participatory making and critically assess the future public urban development possibilities in Yakutsk and more broadly in the context of the Arctic and Subarctic regions, which can lead to more sustainable shared space design solutions and improve the quality of life of the users.

Conference topic

Poster session

Preferred format

Poster



#146 Biloxi, Mississippi after Katrina: Disaster Recovery & Reconstruction on the Gulf Coast

Jennifer Trivedi from US (jtrivedi@udel.edu) (University of Delaware)



Abstract

Abstract title

Biloxi, Mississippi after Katrina: Disaster Recovery & Reconstruction on the Gulf Coast

Abstract text

Following Katrina, Biloxi, Mississippi found itself working to recover from devastation, much of which was focused on the oldest part of the city, filled with shotgun houses, social clubs and churches rooted in ethnic and national heritage, the seafood industry, and casino barges. The recovery process itself was shaped not only by what had physically been there before and the path of the hurricane, but also by pre-disaster social, cultural, political, and economic forces, including people who lived in areas far less impacted by the storm and a history of repeated hurricane strikes in the area. The area’s history of neighborhood, ethnic and racial, and socioeconomic class identities was interwoven with memories of earlier hurricanes to shape priorities for pre-Katrina preparedness and post-Katrina response and recovery. Understanding this historical and cultural context is vital to our understanding of long-term recovery from disasters, of Katrina’s lasting impact on Biloxi, and of the ways in which cycles of disasters can influence recovery, in turn, setting up what and who will be hit by the next disaster. Following Katrina decisions were made to relocate casinos onto land near the water, eliminating the hazards associated with their status as barges, but continuing existing risk as they remained in the strike zone for hurricanes, as proven with previous hurricanes and Katrina. Long-term recovery in Biloxi, then, has been shaped not only by ideas about recovery, but by a complex web of risk perception, economic need, and cultural identities and values.

Conference topic

Panel no. 85 - Disasters as Transformation: The Anthropology-Geography Dialogues

Preferred format

Oral



#148 Collective Attempt to re-center femininity

Palak Dhiman from IN (palakdhiman95@gmail.com) (Indian Institute of Management, Indore)



Abstract

Abstract title

Collective Attempt to re-center femininity

Abstract text

A social movement in the words of Anthony Giddens, is a collective attempt to further a common interest or secure a common goal through actions outside the established institutions. The world has seen many movements which resonated around the demand to have access to rights, equality, dignity and justice to the women. For instance, in Ireland, the abortion movement v/s pro-life movement, in USA women’s right movement, and recently, across the globe was #me too movement. All these play a role towards providing aid and justice to the women with whom the society or its beings have done wrong. But in the present times, one movement that awaits our concern is to stopping the women especially of the global south, from continuing the unethical, inhuman, harmful traditional practices (genital cutting, ritual fattening, menstrual health, and education deprivation) they have been doing to their daughters to keep them pure, worthy, and ‘a one among them’ and to get a suitable match for them to marry and create a pure progeny. Women believe that if things change for the next generation of girls, that will be taking something away from them or make them incomplete. We often hear: “This was here before our time and it’s still the way things must be done today.” And this is the reality of the global south women. So lets focus on securing the young girls and the generations to come from the unwanted subordination to the deteriorating traditions.

Conference topic

Panel no. 73 - New Social Movements and Development: Perspectives from Global South

Preferred format

Oral



#150 Uncovering the true “ability to pay” of debtors – infra-politics, myths and violence in the Danish enforcement arrangement

Benjamin Schwarz from DK (bschwarz@ruc.dk) (Roskilde University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Uncovering the true “ability to pay” of debtors – infra-politics, myths and violence in the Danish enforcement arrangement

Abstract text

While the intimate connection between violence and financial debts have long been stressed, surprisingly anthropologists and adjacent fields have tended to neglect the actual practices and experiences of debt collection, where this conflation is unmistakably visible (Mikuš, 2020). In this presentation, I will build on interviews with people having defaulted on their debts and observations of their encounters with the enforcement arrangement in Denmark. I explain that non-state collectors lack formal information about debtors’ “ability to pay”. Similar to Joe Deville’s work (2015), I show that collectors are compelled to feed off and reinforce the sensations of crisis and moral devaluation that people attribute to their initial experiences of non-payment – conceptualised as a ‘pollution state’ (Douglas, 1966) – in the hope of instalments. This, by obsessing over the “willingness to pay”, supposedly inscribed in the very mould of debtors. This sets the scene for the bailiff’s court as the revelation of the real truth about debtors’ payment ability beyond empty rhetoric and for acting on these truths. In reality, I witnessed an antagonistic moral-(infra)political scene of evasion (Davey, 2019), anxiety, taboo and distrust, where debtor contestations are sought incorporated in the arrangement. So, rather than portraying an enforcement system worthy of a supposed Danish welfare state paradise – presupposing the rational and potent enforcement system that collectors and bailiffs wish for – it (re)produces myths, or moral economic fictions (cf. Sabaté, 2016), rather than truths. Myths, that threaten the subsistence and safety of debtors in a pollution state.

Conference topic

Panel no. 20 - Contesting Household Debt: Politics, Infrapolitics, and the Political Economy of Debtor-Creditor Relations

Preferred format

Oral



#151 "Not Progressive Enough", The Human Rights Paradoxes: with a focus on North Korean Human Rights Discourse

Dasom LEE from KR (nomad.dasom@gmail.com) (Independent Researcher)



Abstract

Abstract title

"Not Progressive Enough", The Human Rights Paradoxes: with a focus on North Korean Human Rights Discourse

Abstract text

This paper is an ethnography on North Korean human rights discourse in Western media and South Korean society. While focusing on the political economy of the North Korean human rights discourse, this paper highlights the discourse in Western media and South Korean society usually talk about freedom, rather than distribution or right to peace, and eventually being used to rationalize regime change, and sanction, which is greatly harming the ordinary people in North Korea. Also, this paper traces how the United States, the county that has been significantly violated the principles of human rights by dividing the Korean peninsula, creating the Korean War seventy years ago, still imposing extreme sanction packages against North Korea, is trying to situate itself as “rescuer” of human rights violation in North Korea. Pointing out that the human rights discourse is not only being used as a war-mongering strategy, but also is based on an imperialist, and neo-liberal project when “open society” translates “open market”, this paper also sheds a light that how this human rights discourse is related with North Korean defectors’ community and right-wing politics in South Korea.

Conference topic

Panel no. 66 - Against Universality of Human Rights: Political Economy of Human Rights, Local Values and Legal Pluralism in New World Order

Preferred format

Oral



#152 Source Exploration of Characters of Yi and Han from the Perspective of Archaeology: Case of Summer Camps by River Daduhe

Xinyan Chi from CN (chixinyan@yahoo.com) (University at Buffalo, State University of New Yor) , Xiaoqin Chen from CN (1211153720@qq.com) (Green Angel Aragonite International Travel Company) , Shiming Zou from CN (luke@haoditech.com.cn) (Green Angel Aragonite International Travel Company) , Qiu Ye from CN (rocky2@126.com) (Green Angel Aragonite International Travel Company) , Yang Su from CN (13478533221@163.com) (Green Angel Aragonite International Travel Company)



Abstract

Abstract title

Source Exploration of Characters of Yi and Han from the Perspective of Archaeology: Case of Summer Camps by River Daduhe

Abstract text

Yi (彝), called Yi (夷) before the middle of last century, is the ethnic minority in the southwestern of China. The studies of document of Legend of Mountains and Seas (山海经), archaeology in Sanxingdui (三星堆), Jinsha (金沙), Maiping (麦坪) and Luodu (雒都), and Oracle inscriptions in Yin Ruins showed it was the descendants of Luo (若) group originated from River Daduhe (大渡河) and River Qingyijiang (青衣江), who was the key member of the biggest priest group, Yi (夷) group, in ancient. The characters of Yi (彝), the only ethnic who retains the title of Yi (夷), conceal the ancient religious codes, which will help to understand the ancient characters oh Han(汉) and even the origin of Chinese civilization. With the form of Green Angel summer camp, this study is to compare and analyze the characters of Yi (彝) and Han (汉) through the symbols of the colored tektites (玻璃陨石), jadewares and aragnites (文石) in River Daduhe and Mountain Xiaoliangshan (小凉山), the instrument symbols of Yi (彝) priests, and so on. Meanwhile, it will compare and analyze the painted potteries, jadewares and stone carving symbols in China to explore the origin of the characters of Han (汉) or the Chinese.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#153 The Disability Movement: Reflection from Global South.

Neha Singh from IN (neha.niva97@gmail.com) (Indian Institute of Management, Indore)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Disability Movement: Reflection from Global South.

Abstract text

Social Movements have become the key feature of modern political life. Touraine, Melucci, Offe and others opined the new post-industrial or information societies are fostering a growing awareness of differences through subcultures and counter-cultures, and that these are generating New Social Movements around a wide range of public issues. Disability alliances have been formed to champion the rights of the disabled. Most of the world’s disabled people are said to reside in the global South but disability study remains as global North-centric as it is global North focused (Greech, 2011). The global south countries like Ghana, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Venezuela among many others spotlight the complex uncertainities of modern geopolitics of coloniality; emergent forms of governance including neo-liberal globalization and processes of disability interstices with migration, race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, religion and customary societies and practices. Erving Goffman, who is an influential sociologist suggests an array of problems that happen when people are confronted with stigmas. Challenges in global south like hierarchy, division and ordering of society by making it clear that some people are most surely not in the society. They are excluded, and made to sit on their borders and boundaries. Across the world, major changes have been seen in reactions to disabilities in terms of legal responses and social policy. Yet this need to be introduced in the countries of global south through dialogue and debate to stop cultural hegemony and promote social harmony.

Conference topic

Panel no. 73 - New Social Movements and Development: Perspectives from Global South

Preferred format

Oral



#154 Aging With Interruptions

Celeste Pang from CA (celeste.pang@mail.utoronto.ca) (University of Toronto)



Abstract

Abstract title

Aging With Interruptions

Abstract text

In his novel Death With Interruptions (translated from the Portuguese), writer José Saramago considers what would happen if no one died. From the initial euphoria of the ceasing of death, within the boundaries of one nation, Saramago offers an assessment of the industry and interests of death: within the 24 hours that death is interrupted, funereal groups lobby the state to make mandatory the burial of animal pets, the life insurance industry imposes time limits on coverage, nursing homes spiral into projections of unplanned futures, and families pay to have their near-death members driven over the border where their lives can cease. Death, in her lair, deliberates on the human condition. An incisive critique of the social institutions of church, state, family, and capitalist profit margins, Saramago dances through a mildly dystopian allegory of life without, and indeed with, death, as he follows a society that comes to hope for death to return. Aging, like death, is something not commonly hoped for, a specter to be forestalled. In this vein, this paper queries “aging with interruptions”. It imagines, specifically, what “interrupted” aging might mean for queer and trans communities, and what positive interruptions queer and trans communities and aligned critical scholarship already pose to hegemonic notions of successful aging on individual and moreover societal levels. Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork among queer and trans older adults in Toronto, Canada, and centering perspectives from trans studies and critical disability thought, the paper offers one imagination of an aging future.

Conference topic

Panel no. 63 - Coming of (Old) Age on Earth: Imagining Our Aging Future

Preferred format

Oral



#155 Profound clashes of beliefs: a bottom-up perspective on social protection policy processes in Zambia

Maria Klara Kuss from PR (kuss@merit.unu.edu) (United Nations University & Maastricht University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Profound clashes of beliefs: a bottom-up perspective on social protection policy processes in Zambia

Abstract text

This paper explores how Zambia's first National SCT policy sits with Zambia’s local welfare regime and the local believes and understandings of poverty and deservingness (see Gough et al, 2004). The National SCT policy is of particular interest because it was designed by top-level actors with rather abstract ideas about poverty and poverty reduction in Zambia. The paper uses a bottom-up approach to policy analysis and assumes that polices are shaped and reshaped through the structured negotiations between various actors involved in the policy implementation (see Puelzl and Treib, 2007; Lipsky, 1971, 1980). The paper thus focuses on understanding how these policy ideas were understood and reshaped by situated actors at the intermediary and local level of policy implementation. The paper builds on the analysis of about 40 interviews with policy-relevant actors at the local and intermediary level of policy implementation as well as an earlier study on the beliefs, perceptions and experiences of SCT recipients and community members. The findings indicate a large gap between the policy ideas from above and the local understanding of the policy. Intermediary and local actors did largely not understand the policy ideas that were pushed down on them from above. As a result, the scheme was incrementally adapted in line with locally prevailing believes about poverty and deservingness. The process of policy interpretation and adaptation illustrates the political settlement process of Zambia’s local welfare regime.

Conference topic

Panel no. 21 - An Anthropology of Policy: Legacies and Future Challenges

Preferred format

Oral



#156 Bodies, Mobilities and Materialities in the Space of “Gypsy Pilgrimage”

Ryoko Sachi-Noro from JP (sachi@toyo.jp) (Toyo University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Bodies, Mobilities and Materialities in the Space of “Gypsy Pilgrimage”

Abstract text

Every year thousands of European Gypsies/Roma gather in the French seaside town of Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer for the annual pilgrimage in honor of Saint Sara, known as the Patron of Gypsies. There are two conflicting stories about this “Gypsy pilgrimage”. One story, according to the official view, is that the “Gypsy pilgrimage” helps to create, by dissipating social division and everyday conflicts, social unity and harmony between Gypsies and non-Gypsies (tourists, villagers etc.). The other, from the viewpoint of Gypsy participants, is that the pilgrimage festival which has become too touristy forces Gypsies and their caravans (camping cars) to the margins of the town, and excludes them from active participation in ceremonial event. To explore the plural form of reality in the “Gypsy pilgrimage” narrated through different viewpoints, this presentation examines “the chance of space”—“the surprise of space” (Massey, D. 2005. For Space) which creates unexpected encounters of different bodies with different backgrounds and mobilities (Gypsies/Roma, tourists, villagers etc). Explicating the role of material/bodily processes in space making, it will illustrate 1)how different types of human mobilities (traveling, roaming, pausing, staying, etc.) are shaped by material environments and objects surrounding those bodies (streets, squares, cafes, “anti-caravans” barriers, sounds, sun lights, others' bodies, etc.), and 2) how their associations generate the contingent experiences of conviviality.

Conference topic

Panel no. 56 - Mobilities and Materialities: Body, Infrastructure, and Environment

Preferred format

Oral



#157 Why are Japanese anthropologists working on East Asian societies interested in historical and folkloric issues?

Yukihiro Kawaguchi from JP (yukihirokawaguchi@hotmail.com) (Tohoku University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Why are Japanese anthropologists working on East Asian societies interested in historical and folkloric issues?

Abstract text

    Why is it that Japanese anthropologists researching East Asian societies appear to be primarily interested in historical and folkloric elements rather than theoretical issues of contemporary anthropology? In this presentation, I, as a Japanese anthropologist researching historical and folkloric issues in East Asian societies, will consider the organizer’s question through a historical investigation into studies on Japanese anthropology and an interview with a leading authority on East Asian anthropological study in Japan.     Researchers of East Asian societies must first grapple with the thick bulk of knowledge accumulated by Sinology and Oriental studies. There are innumerable literate works and records in East Asia, including biographies, genealogies, and local gazetteers, among others, and a plethora of studies of these sources have been conducted. James L. Watson eagerly collaborated with historians to examine Chinese kinship and funeral rituals. However, even Maurice Freedman, widely considered a shining star among anthropologists studying East Asia, is often mentioned to have had little influence over anthropological theory. It seems to be difficult for western anthropologists specializing in East Asia to achieve cross-regional theoretical exchange, to say nothing of Japanese anthropologists who have been struggling to catch up with them. Additionally, in the context of Japanese scholarship, the development of anthropology was closely linked with Japan’s imperialism and colonialism over East Asia, whereby the primary aim was to understand the structures of local societies. Inevitably, researchers’ interest was oriented toward historical and folkloric issues rather than anthropological theory.

Conference topic

Panel no. 89 - Rethinking East Asian Anthropologies in Historical Perspective

Preferred format

Oral



#158 Remaking the Soul of a City: Investigating the “Ancient Streets” in the Modern Spaces of China

JINGWEI LI from CN (76591380@qq.com) (Sichuan University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Remaking the Soul of a City: Investigating the “Ancient Streets” in the Modern Spaces of China

Abstract text

In modern China, the reconstruction of "Ancient Street" has become a general trend. Under the government's planning, urban area and its surroundings have been transformed into a space for intensive performances of regional cultural heritage and its derivatives. While People visit these places on the purpose of leisure and sightseeing, they also practice the nostalgic deeds of cultural traditions. This study will discuss the relevant issues based on anthropological fieldwork, and attempt to analyze the social generative mechanism of "ancient street" phenomenon in the further discussion.

Conference topic

Panel no. 25 - Looking for New Analytical Frameworks in the Study of Cultural Heritage and Modernization

Preferred format

Oral



#159 Indigenous Peoples’ Legal Struggles in Guatemala

James Sanford Phillips from US (jamesphillips21346@gmail.com) (Wichita Indochinese Center)



Abstract

Abstract title

Indigenous Peoples’ Legal Struggles in Guatemala

Abstract text

In this paper we shall review efforts by the indigenous peoples of Guatemala to use international law and/or Guatemalan law to preserve their lands and water from corporate developers; to expose and counter human rights violations committed by the government of Guatemala and its private allies; and to seek asylum abroad. Mining interests have targeted indigenous areas for gold mining and other activities without obtaining free, prior and informed consent of indigenous communities. The indigenous people have fought back by holding municipal referendums and seeking relief in Guatemalan courts under the Guatemalan In this paper we shall review efforts by the indigenous peoples of Guatemala to use international Constitution and ibn international forums using the UN Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous People. These efforts have had mixed results. Human rights activists have sought redress for past genocidal policies of the Guatemalan government, and are fighting efforts of the Guatemalan authorities to suppress free speech activities. We shall examine efforts of indigenous people to seek protection through asylum laws in other countries, especially in the United States. The author interviewed hundreds in the 1980s and 1990s and early 21st century who were fleeing genocidal policies and oppressive economic conditions.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#166 The advance of extractive activities: contribution to a territorial approach in Latin America

Lucile MEDINA from FR (lucile.medina@univ-montp3.fr) (University of Montpellier 3)



Abstract

Abstract title

The advance of extractive activities: contribution to a territorial approach in Latin America

Abstract text

The proposal is based on a general questioning of extractive activities in a broad sense (Gudynas, 2009) and their development trajectories in a spatial dimension. In the current context of the Latin American sub-continent that we propose to consider, there is an expansion of the frontiers of extractivism that are advancing "over the most remote areas of each country" (Gudynas, 2010). However, it should be noted that researches on extractivism mostly adopt an economic and political perspective (neo-extractivism) and that precise studies concerning its territorial inscription are still lacking. The economic diffusion of the extractive model is well studied but the spatial diffusion at the level of national territories and at the regional/local level is not so well documented. A crossed look at extractivism/borders-frontiers can contribute a lot to the work on extractivism, making visible the border regions that become affected territories and productive reservoirs, and a socio-environmental conflictivity that is little documented due to the difficulty and sometimes even the danger of working in these contexts. We propose to consider several questions, based on a review of the literature covering this topic, which is still fragmented and based on empirical case studies: to discuss the hypothesis that the border regions are particularly vulnerable spaces for various reasons and that socio-economic and environmental impacts are very important; to question the models of territorial inscription of extractivism (the enclave model); to highlight the tensions that arise between logics of expansion of extractive activities and environmental conservation policies.

Conference topic

Panel no. 11 - Responding Extractivist Reforms - Global Contexts and Local Insights on Neoliberal Extractive Policies

Preferred format

Oral



#167 “He became like a father”: images of the leader in the Armenian Velvet Revolution

Pedro Bogossian-Porto from FR (pedro_bogo@yahoo.com.br) (Université de Paris)



Abstract

Abstract title

“He became like a father”: images of the leader in the Armenian Velvet Revolution

Abstract text

In the spring of 2018, Armenians took the streets in one of the biggest set of rallies of their history. Known as the Armenian Velvet Revolution, the movement was conducted by Nikol Pashinyan and resulted in the resignation of the ruling Prime Minister and in Pashinyan’s election for the position. The success of the revolution is certainly due to its pacific nature, but the way it evolved could not be explained without taking into consideration the role personally played by Pashinyan, who exerted a charismatic influence on the activists. This paper intends to analyse the affective relationship that was established between the people and the leader during the revolutionary process. I propose that this emotional connection with Pashinyan was crucial to enlarge and solidify the engagement of the citizens, who trusted on him “like a father”, as described in by an interviewee. Considering that the state – and politics in general – was highly distrusted in Armenia, the rise of a charismatic leadership rehabilitated the political structures and the electoral path as a possible way of transforming the society. The process created the conditions for the emergence of new forms of social activism.

Conference topic

Panel no. 30 - Generational Affects: Anthropological Ways Toward Re-Enchanting Disenchantment

Preferred format

Oral



#168 Disaster culture and disaster prevention and mitigation of Yi people in Liangshan in anthropological context

Ying Zhao from CN (ying8387@163.com) (Changzhou Institute of Technology) , Zhi Yong Yang from CN (ying8387@163.com) (Sichuan University) , Hong Ye from CN (ying8387@163.com) (Yuxi normal university)



Abstract

Abstract title

Disaster culture and disaster prevention and mitigation of Yi people in Liangshan in anthropological context

Abstract text

Because of the frequent occurrence of natural disasters, the wide distribution of time and area of disasters, and the great impact of disasters, the study of disaster culture and practice of disaster prevention and mitigation of Liangshan Yi people is representative and typical. Liangshan Yi people have unique disaster culture, including folk belief, religious ceremony, life etiquette, production and life, etc. Because of population growth, over exploitation of resources and other factors, the ecological environment is in crisis. Under the impact of the great tradition, the traditional disaster culture of the Yi nationality in Liangshan is suffering from anomie and inheritance crisis. The disaster management of Liangshan Yi District is led by the government and the responsibility of each functional department is divided. The party and government have always attached great importance to disaster prevention and mitigation at the community level.In the current disaster management system led by the government, there are some problems, such as the imperfect management system, the imperfect organization, the insufficient capital investment, and the poor ability of community disaster prevention and mitigation. It will play an active role in promoting the harmonious development of people and nature, people and people, people and society, carrying forward the excellent national cultural traditions and promoting the development of local knowledge of disaster reduction in ethnic areas.

Conference topic

Panel no. 100 - Exploring the Gap Between Knowledge, Policy and Practice. Contributions to Anthropology of Disaster & Climate Change Worldwide with Special Stress on the Global South  

Preferred format

Oral



#169 Post-peasant imaginaries and contemporary forms of nation-building

Anna Malewska-Szałygin from PL (a.malewska-szalygin@uw.edu.pl) (University of Warsaw, Poland)



Abstract

Abstract title

Post-peasant imaginaries and contemporary forms of nation-building

Abstract text

The current intensification of national sentiments, an increase in support for right-wing parties are the activation of the ideas about the state, power and nation derived, among others, from centuries-old peasant experience of rural farm management. I argue in favour of this thesis presenting the results of subsequent projects carried out in the villages of the Podhale region in the south of Poland. Qualitative research included over 500 in-depth interviews were conducted since 2000. Historically shaped post-peasant imaginaries explain not only contemporary political preferences but also allow anticipating that after experiencing pandemic national rhetoric, and perceiving power as obliged to care for the nation will strengthen.

Conference topic

Panel no. 99 - National Intimacy Historical Present and Possibilities of New Imaginaries

Preferred format

Oral



#170 Sensory Impairment or Alternative Way of Life: Participating the Blind World in Japan.

Shuji IIJIMA from JP (shuujiiijima@gmail.com) (Kyushu University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Sensory Impairment or Alternative Way of Life: Participating the Blind World in Japan.

Abstract text

In an undergraduate classroom of cultural anthropology 2019, we planned to research the blind and weak sight. We designed 10 students to learn the world of their world, step by step. What we found in that classroom was how the bodily experience of the past resisted to understand of the different world. On the other hand, in a post high-school classroom of arts and design 1999, we performed to sensory impairment experiments. We designed 16 students to feel the world of partial sensory world, step by step; touching world, smelling world, hearing world, and looking world. What we found in it was how the bodily experience of the past were free to enjoy the different world. Between two cases, we can learn how the guidance of the teaching is important to participate in the different world. Any human experience would have both sides. However, the forms of encounter might extract one side from our informants. If so, what kind of design we need for our participant observation for the future of anthropology? We try to seek alternative forms of cultural anthropology.

Conference topic

Panel no. 64 - Sensory Environmental Relationships - Between Memories of the Past and Imaginings of the Future

Preferred format

Oral



#172 Romani Castle as (Im)mobile Architecture

Ayako Iwatani from JP (glasshouse47@hotmail.com) (Kyoto University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Romani Castle as (Im)mobile Architecture

Abstract text

In the post-communist Romania, peculiar looking houses came to be constructed. People began calling them as “castel (castle)” of the Roma. They are the houses of the Căldărari Roma, who had led nomadic lives dealing with metals but were deported to Transnistria during the Second World War for forced labor. Many of them lost their lives or got severely injured there. After the war, the survivors started settled lives without resources but with traumatic memory. They succeeded in selling scraps to companies or working abroad, and started to build “castles” after the 1990’s. The styles of the houses are unique and eclectic, ranging from Romanian folk to neo-Romanian, Greek, Gothic, and even Indian (Bollywood), which they have seen travelling or in media such as TV or magazines. These styles are materialized through imagination on virtual/actual move. Despite of their gorgeous looking, the houses are constructed in fragile materials and some houses are left incomplete. Many rooms remain empty for future guests and children. The articles of the deceased are kept in a particular corner of the houses. The houses don’t long for eternity but seek for ephemeral extravagance. It is a product of individual as well as collective experiences of (im)mobility, appearing at the surface of (im)mobile architecture. Their houses are as vulnerable as their lives but the proof of their maximizing the transient present.

Conference topic

Panel no. 35 - Time, (Im)Mobility and Vulnerability

Preferred format

Oral



#173 ‘I just felt responsible for my debts’: austerity, debt morality and class exploitation

Matthew Sparkes from GB (ms2268@cam.ac.uk) (University of Cambridge)



Abstract

Abstract title

‘I just felt responsible for my debts’: austerity, debt morality and class exploitation

Abstract text

The 2008 financial crisis was, at its epicentre, a crisis triggered by individual credit defaults. In the immediate aftermath, the ‘causes’ of these systematic defaults were fiercely contested. Marxist scholars pointed to neoliberal economic policies as the underlying factors. However, a narrative gained traction that problem debt was caused by moral failure, particularly amongst those who knowingly took out loans and mortgages they could not afford (e.g., Booth, 2009; Gregg, 2009). Ultimately, politicians in the US and UK utilised a moralising discourse of individualised financial responsibility (Walker, 2011) to make the case for austerity as the solution to the problems wrought by the financial crises. Tyler (2013; 2015) argues the axis from which class-analysis should proceed if it is to grasp the way politics and policies exploit workers, is to examine ‘the political formula’ that is conjured and promoted to explain the behaviour of an ‘imagined’ mass and what ‘ideological work’ this formula is doing. In this presentation, I draw upon rich oral histories with workers who have defaulted on their credit agreements, to reveal how they come to internalise this discourse of individual financial responsibility and take steps to reconstruct their lives to adhere to its principles. By drawing upon Tyler’s (2015) framework, I will detail how this discourse and the stigmatisation of those who default, is perpetuated to ideologically normalise debt repayment, and thus enable the continued exploitation of workers by the financial sector. Exposing these forms of classificatory practices is crucial to effective class struggle and mobilisation.

Conference topic

Panel no. 20 - Contesting Household Debt: Politics, Infrapolitics, and the Political Economy of Debtor-Creditor Relations

Preferred format

Oral



#174 From marginality to ritual authority. How pop music is transforming the status of young educated men among the Samburu (Kenya)

Giordano Marmone from FR (gmarmone@umich.edu) (University of Michigan)



Abstract

Abstract title

From marginality to ritual authority. How pop music is transforming the status of young educated men among the Samburu (Kenya)

Abstract text

Among the Samburu, nomadic pastoralists of northern Kenya, new social actors have emerged in recent decades. Officially affiliated to the three age-grades that compose their social system (uncircumcised boys, warriors and elders), educated Samburu play a very different political and economic role compared to their pastoralist peers. The position they occupy within their communities is fraught with ambiguity, especially that of young circumcised men. In a community structured around its pastoral economy, these individuals are often perceived as outsiders. However, this situation is changing. The new constraints with which the Samburu community has to deal - such as the management of cash from wage labour, the opening of bank accounts, the interaction with national and regional institutions - make educated young people indispensable political and economic actors. In recent years, their voices have been increasingly heard in the assemblies of warriors and elders, and the pop songs in Samburu language that they perform, compose and listen to are becoming more and more present inside their community, even during important ceremonial occasions such as marriages and initiations. According to the hypothesis that I will explore in this presentation, the success of new pop Samburu music is helping educated young people to shape and legitimize their identity in the eyes of the members of their community. Through music composition, they present themselves as political subjects capable of developing narratives and reflections that allow them to relate dialectically to modernity while maintaining a connection with their cultural heritage and ritual life.

Conference topic

Panel no. 10 - Lost in Representation: Changes and Paradoxes in the Nomads' Life

Preferred format

Oral



#176 "Cultural Heritage" in East Asian Politics and Global Market

TAO YE from CN (taoye@sdu.edu.cn) (Shandong University)



Abstract

Abstract title

"Cultural Heritage" in East Asian Politics and Global Market

Abstract text

There are different positions on the understanding of "Cultural Heritage", especially on cultural subjectivity, among East Asian countries, which have similar historical and cultural heritage, and have gone through different modernization processes. In the international activities of "Cultural Heritage" protection and inheritance, including the signing of international treaties and market practice, there are different tendencies and even arguments between them. on the view of "Cultural Property" protection system and its related international trends, especially its traditional medicine "Kanbou" and its international practice in Japan, this paper examines the cultural politics among East Asian countries and its characteristics related to the global market from the perspective of the evolution of relevant laws and policies and international treaties, as well as the history and current situation of the communication and disputes of "Intangible Cultural Heritage" among East Asian countries.

Conference topic

Panel no. 25 - Looking for New Analytical Frameworks in the Study of Cultural Heritage and Modernization

Preferred format

Oral



#178 Migrants imagining Europe through media: making the case for a research agenda

Helena Dedecek Gertz from DE (helena.dedecek.gertz@uni-hamburg.de) (University of Hamburg)



Abstract

Abstract title

Migrants imagining Europe through media: making the case for a research agenda

Abstract text

Luciana lived in a large favela in Brazil for 24 years. All she knew about Germany was related to the Nazi period. In 2015, although concerned about her safety as a black Brazilian migrant, she moved to a middle-sized town in northern Germany where she studied to become a care worker. Now she has a work contract and a permanent resident status. Luciana’s case is inspiring to investigate the formation of migrant's fantasies and imaginations. Migration scholars have been long studying migrants’ aspirations. It is clear that e.g. seeking better material conditions and access to education are motors of migration. Nevertheless, the formation of the idea that social improvements can be conquered in Europe remains underinvestigated. Assuming that mass communication plays a role in the social construction of reality, media studies can help tackle that research agenda. Yet, research on media and migration has been focusing on press coverage and media use by migrants to keep in touch with peers, leaving observations about media’s role on imagining the country of destination aside. Hence, my aim is to investigate the construction of future perspectives among migrants in times of deep mediatisation. For this presentation, I make the case for that research agenda though a systematic literature review of papers published by journals from two major international publishing houses, namely, Taylor & Francis and SAGE. As I show a research gap in both media and migration studies, I advocate for bridging those areas focusing on the role of media in migration decisions.

Conference topic

Panel no. 33 - Imagining Europe - Fantasies Around Migration to Europe

Preferred format

Oral



#180 The Creating Shared Value by the Enterprises

Clara Hyun-Jung LEE from FR (clara.h.lee@gmail.com) (EHESS)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Creating Shared Value by the Enterprises

Abstract text

Every enterprise has a broad ‘Collective Norm’ that dominates its culture, within which are a set of group behaviours that equate to ‘how we do business’. These can vary between the different sub-cultures of the enterprise, especially when it is geographically and/or demographically diverse (Exter, 2014: p.22). This presentation aims to highlight, when it comes to the legacies and current achievements of the enterprise anthropology, the importance of understanding about the ‘Norm’ which guides how people should behave (Kelsen & Knight, 1966; McKenzie-Mohr, 2007). Moreover the Personal Norm is the key of behaviour change (Schwartz, 1977). In an ideal scenario, Collective Norm and Personal Norm can be led together to the congruence of personal and organisational values to build an altruistic self-identity as ‘To-be state’. At this point, this presentation proposes to consider the crucial role of business communities and networks, not only with their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), but also with Creating Shared Value (CSV) (Porter & Kramer, 2011) and its contribution to humanity as well. The clarity of organisation values and its resulting collective norm would influence personal and group behaviour. At this point I want to emphasize the role of the enterprise, having direct impacts on the society and the environment. This study is intended to show practical examples of the process of explaining the values/norms of the enterprises in the corporate advertising and brand value marketing of some selected companies.

Conference topic

Panel no. 26 - Enterprise Anthropology: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives

Preferred format

Oral



#181 Polygyny, incest and other conundrums in anthropological theories of marriage

Marnio Teixeira-Pinto from BR (marnio.t.pinto@gmail.com) (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina)



Abstract

Abstract title

Polygyny, incest and other conundrums in anthropological theories of marriage

Abstract text

Being a ‘structuralist partisan’ or not, every anthropologist interested in kinship must admit marriage is a central aspect of their subject. However, a consensual definition of what is to be taken as a ‘marriage’ has always been far to be achieved. Although not having a clear and indisputable definition of marriage, many categories of our anthropological analytic arsenal are connected to the idea of marriage, like polygamy or incest, for example. In this paper, inspired by the revival of strong kinship studies, I propose that the time has come to retake a serious look at some definitional problems on kinship related phenomena (like marriage, e.g.), which may allow us to overcome certain old theoretical impasses. Starting from the Arara ethnography (karíb, Amazonia, Brazil), among whom polygyny and incest bond with other marriage practices in a curious and remarkable dense matrimonial network, the communication proposes a first analytical and comparative sketch to sustain the need for new propositions on the subject.

Conference topic

Panel no. 53 - The Human Legacy of Kinship

Preferred format

Oral



#182 Why not openly contesting household debt? A historical inquiry on consumer credit among the Argentinian working-class

Hadrien Saiag from FR (hadrien.saiag@ehess.fr) (CNRS)



Abstract

Abstract title

Why not openly contesting household debt? A historical inquiry on consumer credit among the Argentinian working-class

Abstract text

During the last decade, the Argentinian working class has increasingly been exposed to new forms of consumer credit. A series of ethnographies carried out in one of the main city’s industrial hub (Rosario) underlines that this gave rise to a new form of exploitation, based on the temporal mismatch between the (monthly-based) time of debt repayments, and the more erratic time of labour. Informal workers are particularly exposed to this process, due to their unstable income flows, and the weakness of their social protections. Surprisingly, they do not openly contest household debt, as they consider consumer credit both as a form of alienation and exploitation and as a form of social recognition: thanks to consumer credit, they say that they are “part of the system”, for the first time of their lives. I argue that in order to understand why the most exploited do not openly contest household debt, it is necessary to put ethnographies in a wider time perspective, in order to conceive the recent boom of consumer credit as the culmination of a series of processes that reshaped Rosario’s working class in a complex way. These processes include the deindustrialisation that threatened the region during the 1990s and the subsequent closing of stable workers’ financial mutuals, the possibility of bypassing debt repayment thanks to informal labour, the rising exposure to drug-trafficking, and the left-oriented governmental policies implemented between 2003 and 2015, characterised by increasing employment formalisation, and by the extension of social protection to people without stable employment.

Conference topic

Panel no. 20 - Contesting Household Debt: Politics, Infrapolitics, and the Political Economy of Debtor-Creditor Relations

Preferred format

Oral



#183 Doing Research as Racialised and Gendered Beings

Sandra Fernandez from GB (sasf@st-andrews.ac.uk) (University of St Andrews)



Abstract

Abstract title

Doing Research as Racialised and Gendered Beings

Abstract text

This paper draws from Masters and PhD research conducted in Cairo, Egypt to explore and unpack notions of the encounter from and between perspectives of colour. Many researchers (Berry et Al 2017, Hendersen 2009, Townsend – Bell 2009) have demonstrated that women of colour are automatically treated with a different set of expectations than their white counterparts, and my research experience will delve further into this. In Hendersen’s first encounter, her interlocutors stated “We thought you would be white” (2009), but the encounter encapsulates more subtle expectations driven by local understandings of gender and race. This paper will focus on a series of exchanges that occured at various points during the fieldwork process, and allow us to unpack the different assumptions and expectations researchers of colour encounter in the Cairo context. Drawing from the experiences of Berry et al (2017), but differing in percieved intensity, this paper asks us to consider smaller, but impactful exchanges based upon specific, historically informed notions of Blackness. These conflicting ideas of self and Other enrich the data being gathered, and as such warrant further understanding and study, in addition to incorporation into badly needed programmes to train new researchers.

Conference topic

Panel no. 31 - The Potentiality of Encounters

Preferred format

Oral



#184 Living between renunciation and non-renunciation: Women’s celibacy outside the monasteries as a religious practice in Western Bhutan.

Fuko Kawamura from JP (a10028kf@gmail.com) (ASAFAS, Kyoto University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Living between renunciation and non-renunciation: Women’s celibacy outside the monasteries as a religious practice in Western Bhutan.

Abstract text

Some laywomen in Bhutan live celibate lives as an expression of religious devotion. These women are recognized as laywomen and are distinct from nuns although they follow a nun-like lifestyle. Previous researches in South Asia show that a woman’s life course is widely perceived as being limited to two choices that stand in binary opposition to one another: a secular path devoted to the family and a religious path achieved through the renunciation of family (c.f. Yagi 1999). In studies of Buddhism as well, sharp lines are often drawn between laypeople and monks/nuns, between the household and the monastery, suggesting that these are completely separated (c.f. Kuramoto 2014). In Bhutanese society, however, there are some women who are not nuns but who nevertheless live nun-like lives. These women’s lifestyles show that it is possible to live astride the boundary between renunciation and non-renunciation and to move across it flexibly and dynamically (c.f. Pommaret 2015). I conducted 15 months of research in Paro Dzongkhag, Thimphu Dzongkhag, and Punakha Dzongkhag in Bhutan between December 2017 and December 2019. Here, I report my findings and show how Bhutanese people approach the boundary between monks/nuns and laypeople, between renunciation and non-renunciation, not only from a dogmatic perspective but also from the perspective of religious practice and narrative among laypeople, focusing on the relationships between laywomen who are celibate for religious reasons and the religious beliefs in their communities.

Conference topic

Panel no. 01 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#185 Volver: Transgenerational student migrations among Sahrawi refugees and future perspectives concerning the return

Rita Reis from PT (ritar_23@hotmail.com) (Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon)



Abstract

Abstract title

Volver: Transgenerational student migrations among Sahrawi refugees and future perspectives concerning the return

Abstract text

Due to the non-decolonization of the Western Sahara and its subsequent invasion, since 1975 that exiled Sahrawi youth is involved, among other movements, in a model of “transnational education” (Chatty et al. 2010), where thousands of young people leave annually the refugee camps (Tindouf, Algeria) to pursue their studies. That is a consequence of the priority given to education (Caratini 2006), which led to the establishment of multiple protocols between the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and third countries (Algeria, Spain, Cuba, among others). Integrated in the nation-building process, this model of education became trangenerational (Fiddian-Qasmiyeh 2015). However the “ambivalent temporality of the «meanwhile»” (Solana 2016:84), lived by Sahrawis has transformed these educational movements, as well as the future perspectives and expectations (Koselleck 1979; Bryant and Knight 2019) of this second generation who leaves the refugee camps to study. In contrast with their parents that studied and came back – to the camps and to the cause – today, instead of a permanent return, youth is permeated by transnational circular movements (Gómez 2010) between their study context and the refugee camps. That shape their perception of the exiled-SADR, where they were born (the refugee camps); their homeland (the Western Sahara); and their individual desires, which can create family tensions, especially considering their non-permanent return. Based on an on-going and long-term ethnographic research, this communication aims to analyse how second generations of Sahrawi students shape their future perspectives based on their transnational student path, belonging both to the origin and host societies.

Conference topic

Panel no. 48 - "Twice-Migrants" in the Context of Nationality, Nationalism and Nationhood

Preferred format

Oral



#186 The rise of anti-financialisation discourse in far-right parties

Valentina Ausserladscheider from GB (va284@cam.ac.uk) (University of Cambridge)



Abstract

Abstract title

The rise of anti-financialisation discourse in far-right parties

Abstract text

Far-right parties gain in electoral support across the globe with many scholars arguing that this is due to a cultural backlash against multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism. Yet others assume that it is a reaction against processes of globalisation, inequality, and immigration. While these accounts offer important insights on how voters´ preferences and contexts change, scholarship has failed to acknowledge that simultaneous to their increasing success, these parties changed their economic policy programme significantly; their economic policy discourse shifted from the advocacy for financialiation and radical liberalisation policies in the 1980-90ies to economic nationalist and anti-financialsation rhetoric more recently. By tracing how and when these ideas in far-right political discourse change, this study shows how far-right politicians mobilise voters by manufacturing a crisis of dominant macroeconomic conditions. It uses the case of the Austrian Freedom Party, which rose to governmental power twice: in 1999 with a radical neoliberal policy agenda and in 2017 with an economic nationalist policy agenda. Comparing the macroeconomic context and the political discourse within these two periods of time, I offer an alternative lens to understand the success of far-right parties. I thereby contribute to international political economy literature by highlighting the importance of ideational processes for institutional change.

Conference topic

Panel no. 20 - Contesting Household Debt: Politics, Infrapolitics, and the Political Economy of Debtor-Creditor Relations

Preferred format

Oral



#188 Childbirth: a Central Issue for Global Health

Wulf Schiefenhövel from DE (schiefenh@yahoo.de) (Max Planck Institute for Ornithology)



Abstract

Abstract title

Childbirth: a Central Issue for Global Health

Abstract text

The worldwide trend away from natural vaginal birth to caesarean section is dramatic. In most European countries its rate is above 30%: every third child is born by the knife. Doctors often encourage their clients’ decision for surgical birth (“modern life style”) and the belief that technology is better than biology. Until now, only few leading obstetricians are warning against the unprecedented rise of non-natural childbirth. Surgical birth generates higher income for doctors and clinics than vaginal birth; this is especially relevant for less affluent countries. Also the midwife’s role is diminished. In Europe, only the Netherlands keep up their tradition of home-birth (about 20%) and let midwives manage normal birth. From the viewpoint of evolutionary medicine it is obvious that vaginal childbirth has been, despite the „obstetrical dilemma“ (narrow pelvis, large head of the new-born) under strong selective pressures ensuring a reasonably safe outcome with neonatal mortality of a few per cent. Compared to this 30% and above caesarean section is medically unjustified, a rate of 5 - 10 % would probably be sufficient, the WHO advocates a range of 10 – 15%. Shaping medical and public, especially female awareness of the manifold medical and anthropological aspects of childbirth is of high importance, particularly for regions where shortage of trained personnel and funds require intelligent decisions and local adaptations which will provide a much better outcome than just copying the (anyway not ideal) procedures of the richer parts of the world.

Conference topic

Panel no. 92 - Anthropological Contribution in the Age of Global Health

Preferred format

Oral



#189 Reflections on anthropological productions and representations of ‘the nomad’: the case of Kel Tamasheq in Bamako

Giulia Gonzales from IT (giulia.gonzales@unito.it) (Turin University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Reflections on anthropological productions and representations of ‘the nomad’: the case of Kel Tamasheq in Bamako

Abstract text

In a volatile securitarian context, which followed 2012’s Kel Tamasheq-led rebellion against the state, Malian Kel Tamasheq, aka Tuareg, are undergoing great structural changes. If the Accord of Algiers put a formal end to this outbreak (2015), it did not resolve the situation, whose roots lie deep in the past 50 years’ ecological, political, and socio-economic transformations. Insecurity continues to pervade Malians’ everyday lives in central and northern regions of the country. In the Malian capital, Bamako, the few long-term Kel Tamasheq residents are now joint by relatives who have escaped precarious situations in the North, where no educational or health services are provided and employment is hard to find. As things stand, Kel Tamasheq of Bamako divide themselves between, on the one hand, a political elite who mediates among kin Kel Tamasheq living elsewhere (those who remained in the North or those who found refuge in neighbouring countries) and the government; on the other, less-privileged relatives who navigate everyday urban spaces and socialities to make a living. If emic categories of movements continue to structure Kel Tamasheq relationalities and power-production, and romanticised representations of nomadic-pastoralist practices and identities still nurture collective imaginaries, issues of power-shifts counter representations of nomadic peoples as defiant and independent (e.g. more intimacies with the state, unemployment and urban marginalisation, movements’ restrictions). This paper reflects on how these novel conditions, and subjects’ responses to them, challenge lasting representations and call for a reflection on the production of anthropological knowledge.

Conference topic

Panel no. 10 - Lost in Representation: Changes and Paradoxes in the Nomads' Life

Preferred format

Oral



#190 Towards a new vision of the meaning of Folk experience in Nature using.

Viacheslav Valentinovich Rudnev from RU (roudnev@mail.ru) (Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology)



Abstract

Abstract title

Towards a new vision of the meaning of Folk experience in Nature using.

Abstract text

The long history of mankind concerns distinctly society life based on exploitation of Natural resources (renewable resources and non-renewable resources). A balance between using renewable resources and non-renewable resources by people has changed significantly in the history of mankind. The industrial epoch is remarkable for unprecedented extensive using of non-renewable resources and “ignoring” a condition of renewable natural resources. Ecological crisis and natural pollution are the result of this situation. Actually the negative condition of fresh water, air, soil and forest as a result of industrial activity has stimulated special attention to technologies friendly to Nature and the interest of scholars to positive folk experience (folk knowledge) in using renewable Natural resources for getting success in Life-support activity. I will focus attention in my presentation on the local folk knowledge of Russian peasants in keeping soil in the 19th century. I will focus special attention on ethical aspects of peasant activity in the agricultural sphere. Actually, a role of special ethical norms in the process of preserving fertility of soils is urgent for modern society. One of the main modern problem is to know more about folk technologies in Nature using for successful activity in Life-support practice, and examine a perspective of adoption folk ethical norms in Nature keeping for modern society. All these are useful for active support in solving modern ecological problems and realizing a model of Sustainable Development for Mankind.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#191 Brief introduction of the formulation process of Yi specification scheme

Zhenghao CHENG from CN (936038952@qq.com) (the Xichang Yi Studies Academy Xichang Sichuan Chi) , Kailian LUO from CN (936038952@qq.com) (the Xichang Yi Studies Academy Xichang Sichuan Chi)



Abstract

Abstract title

Brief introduction of the formulation process of Yi specification scheme

Abstract text

This year marks the 40th anniversary of the Yi cultural code. This project is the result of the collective efforts of more than 50 linguists of Yi in the 1970s, who finally reached a conclusion after in-depth and extensive field investigation, research, debate and vigorous debate on the complicated situation of the non-uniform use of traditional Chinese characters of the Yi people in sichuan. This paper expounds the outstanding contribution of the elite group of Yi nationality represented by Feng Yuanwei to the standard program of Yi literature, and analyzes the significance of the program to Yi literature publications, Yi literature education, Yi literature informatization and Yi literature literacy. The process of scheme in this paper, the Yi language specification, reflected the scheme for the prosperity of the national culture, the Yi people's information communication and facilitate access to, to promote reform and development of Yi area and country in step, every aspect has positive active significance that helping Yi families, and even whom on raise the nation's cultural quality.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#192 Nature using and traditional meals in multicultural community (the case of Russia)

Marina Martynova from RU (martynova@iea.ras.ru) (Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology Russian Ac)



Abstract

Abstract title

Nature using and traditional meals in multicultural community (the case of Russia)

Abstract text

Food culture is both a vital component of human civilization and a historical heritage dependant upon social and cultural change. Eating habits are a basic foundation of good communication and dialogue between nations, countries, cultures and individuals. Nowadays, in the era of the rapid spread of more or less unified global urban culture, the uniqueness of the peoples in the material and the domestic spheres is gradually erased. It is revealing that specificity in food is retained longer than in other spheres of material culture. Preparing food during rituals and holidays preserves archaic elements which imply that food (in terms of type and symbolism) represents the most stable and consistent element of rituals. On the other hand food culture is an area of constant innovation and way for one culture to become part of another, almost without being noticed and furthermore without the problems surrounding other types of cultural interaction. I would turn your attention to the evolution of traditional culture in the modern world in general and in nowadays’ Russia especially, focusing on a single aspect of the problem, being the phenomenon of people living their everyday lives in a dialogue between various cultural traditions in a large city.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#193 Writing a new story for the world through dreaming. The analysis of the dreams shared in an online group.

Nicole Kabus from PL (nkabus@gmail.com) (University of Silesia) , Lidia Rodak from PL (lidia.rodak@us.edu.pl) (University of Silesia)



Abstract

Abstract title

Writing a new story for the world through dreaming. The analysis of the dreams shared in an online group.

Abstract text

The presentation aims at describing the dreams of Polish people in 2019, the moment we call "neo-patriarchal turn." Starting with the presentation of the nightmares in regard to social and political spheres, we focus on presenting visions of the new social order and new organization of community that people are dreaming of. In our study, we primarily focus on analyzing dreams to reconstruct the perception of Polish political power and the Catholic Church with a particular focus on the relationship between men and women. This is to bring the analysis to the second stage of the research to present the vision of the new world emerging from the collective unconscious. The theoretical foundation of the research project is underpinned by C. G. Jung's dream theory and the approach to dreams as a collective phenomenon (Vester, Heinz-Günter, 1993; Fine, Fischer Leighton, 1993). That is why we focus not on the individual, psychological level of the dream, but on the collective level. This perspective of "the dreaming narration" manifesting in respondents' dreams descriptions can tell us about the state of the current world under threat of "patriarchal dictatorship" and could give us the proposition of new, different story about the world. The preliminary research of qualitative study, which has been made on the Facebook group "Circle of dreams," suggests that individuals dream about collapsing old institutional order and emerging a peaceful world based on the feminine quality.

Conference topic

Panel no. 99 - National Intimacy Historical Present and Possibilities of New Imaginaries

Preferred format

Oral



#194 Migration Politics: Rohingyas refugees from Myanmar to Bangladesh

Valentina Grillo from IT (aleinagrillo@gmail.com) (University of Vienna)



Abstract

Abstract title

Migration Politics: Rohingyas refugees from Myanmar to Bangladesh

Abstract text

Governments worldwide respond to refugee crises with ordering policies. One outcome of migration policies is the definition of migration principally in terms of border “control” and migration “management”. These tactics of ordering respond to all dimensions of the subjectivity and autonomy of migration (De Genova 2017), and are reflected in what happened with the Rohingya Refugee Crisis Response in Bangladesh. Since October 2018, on the basis of a bilateral agreement, Bangladesh promoted returns of Rohingyas to Myanmar, where many houses were burnt down. According to a disaster management law, “burnt land becomes government-managed land” in Myanmar. Following to a governmental repopulation strategy, those terrains were donated to others. Nevertheless, Rohingyas are asked either to go back to Myanmar or live in camps. A first assessment needs to be done about the understanding of belonging and inclusion from a Bangladeshi perspective. In Bangladesh, a relatively recently born nation-state, the presence of displaced people challenges the logics of “imagined communities” (Anderson 1991; Malkki 1995; Monsutti 2012). A further assessment refers to Rohingyas’ experience of migration. These are often depicted as Bangladeshi people and “irregular migrants in Myanmar; the violence of their exodus replicates itself in the precariousness of social exclusion. In this context, Rohingyas find themselves in-between a tension. The homogenising notion of nationhood excludes them, whereas a pluralist notion includes them. In nation-states the sense of belonging and relations of power cannot be analysed anymore only in relation to national identity or preconceived borders, which are challenged by displacement.

Conference topic

Panel no. 22 - Legacies of Forced Migrations: The Politics of Exclusions and Inclusions

Preferred format

Oral



#195 The thawra as ethnographic frame: insights from an ethnographer in/from Tunisia

Myriam Amri from US (amri@g.harvard.edu) (Harvard University)



Abstract

Abstract title

The thawra as ethnographic frame: insights from an ethnographer in/from Tunisia

Abstract text

This paper interrogates the omnipresence of the “thawra”, the revolution in Tunisia, as an inescapable temporal frame upon which the ethnographer is confronted by. How is the Tunisian revolution, both an inescapable reference that ethnographies in Tunisia ought to grapple with as well as a formative moment for the ethnographer-at-home? By looking at my own positionality first as a ethnographer in Tunisia, addressing issues of political economy that have temporalities beyond that of a pre versus post revolution and secondly my reflexive position as a Tunisian whose condition as a political subject is framed by a before, during and after the revolution. Through ethnographic vignettes that reveal moments of slippage between ethnographer and political subject, this paper aims to show how the revolution is the meta-frame upon which the ethnographer-at-home is asked to relate, respond or contest. The frame of the revolution comes to organize the relations between the ethnographer and his informants and ought to be theorized so as to map the meanings of doing ethnography as a political subject in a post-revolutionary moment. Ultimately this paper aims to theorize the ethnographer-at-home using the example of the Tunisian ethnographer so as to decipher the modes of political hailing that come with "being from" and "living in" the field.

Conference topic

Panel no. 91 - Knowing in the Field: Ethnography in Overbearing Conditions (sponsored by the Arab Council for the Social Sciences)

Preferred format

Oral



#196 'Affordance', 'liquid imagination' and 'creativity'. A comparative study involving water

Viviana Lebedinsky from AR (vivianleb@yahoo.com) (EHESS (Paris) France)



Abstract

Abstract title

'Affordance', 'liquid imagination' and 'creativity'. A comparative study involving water

Abstract text

Based on a comparative study between works of art from the XV and XVI centuries, about which I reflect from a research focused on The Cloisters, the aim of the paper is to examine the conceptual relevance and potentiality of 'affordance' (Gibson 2015 ), 'liquid imagination' (Harris 2015) and 'creativity' (Ingold and Hallam 2007) with respect to the specificities that, through different artistic interpretations of an element of the environment of such universal interest as that which arouses water (Strang 2009 (in Harris 2015); Harris 2015), it is possible to see in focus miniatures and tapestries of the unicorn. The potentialities of the alluded concepts examined in their interrelation is also considered as part of the aim of the paper. In this regard, the relevance of the relationship between 'affordance' and 'imagination' - suggested by Harris (2015) - is explored with respect to the miniature, deepening previous analyzes (Freeman 1983). Of particular relevance in a desert environment and more precisely, regarding the oasis that different indications (human and non-human) would allow to locate in some region of the Middle East, the water in the miniature is examined in the entanglements and complexities involved in the relationship between humans (metaphorically considered), non-human and unicorn. What new elements of analysis referring to the imaginative potential related to the interest in water in entanglements and complexities involved in the relationship between humans, non-humans and unicorn can the study of tapestries regarding the miniature contribute to the concept of 'creativity '(Ingold and Hallam 2007)?

Conference topic

Panel no. 04 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#198 The Gender Politics of Domestic Violence in India: An Overview

Loveena Sehra from IN (loveena.sehra@gmail.com) (University of Delhi)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Gender Politics of Domestic Violence in India: An Overview

Abstract text

The concept of ‘marriage’has changed over the years. In the neoliberal India where ‘marriage’ is consideredsacred, the ideological notions of what constitutes a marriage and a familyhave not changed much even when the compositions might have changed. Thegendered roles, who is responsible for what are still very definite. Eventhough the construct of vulnerability shared by the gender especially in thetimes of familial instability is experiential and individualistic, women andchildren are at an increased state of vulnerability. However, the increasedreporting of domestic violence cases points towards a change in the societalunderstanding of the same.   The change in the dynamics of ‘marriage’and ‘family’ has led to alteration of judicial and policy reforms wherein theconcept of gender equality and neutrality in laws related to domestic violenceis being questioned. The present paper tries to provide an overview of thesituation as to how gender in the phenomenon of domestic violence has beenpoliticized in the Indian context. Falling back onto the literature andreference from the fieldwork the attempt is to bring these concepts togetherand understand their interplay in the lives of the men and women who are goingthrough divorce or separation due to domestic violence cases in court. Each ofsuch individuals has a very different narrative to share as to how time hasplayed a role in their lives in overcoming their state of uncertainty. 

Conference topic

Panel no. 01 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#199 The Anthropology of Policy and the Anthropology of Institutions: Convergences, Divergences and Complementarity

Samuel Shapiro from CA (samuel.shapiro.1@ulaval.ca) (Université Laval)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Anthropology of Policy and the Anthropology of Institutions: Convergences, Divergences and Complementarity

Abstract text

As an ethnographer of parliament, my work, theoretically speaking, draws centrally on the anthropology of (political) institutions and somewhat on the anthropology of policy. In this paper, I aim to accomplish two goals. Firstly, I seek to compare the partial overlap, differences and complementary nature between the anthropology of institutions and the anthropology of policy. Although the intellectual origins of the anthropological study of institutions more broadly can be traced back to Vico, Durkheim and Mauss, the systematic development of the anthropology of political institutions, more specifically, overlaps with that of the anthropology of policy in the 1990s. At risk of overgeneralizing, the anthropology of policy focusses on debates inside and outside of explicitly political arenas (including institutions), whereas the anthropology of political institutions studies everything that goes on within the four walls of such institutions, including but not limited to policy. Secondly, I ask how some methodological insights from the anthropology of policy, notably the distinction between site and field and the concept of “studying through”, can prove useful to political anthropologists studying phenomena other than policy. Shore and Wright have distinguished between the field, i.e. a wide range of organizations and individuals, and the site, i.e. particular aspects of a broader field that shed light on wider sociopolitical transformations. “Studying through” emphasizes that such processes unfold historically over time and involve competing political visions whose future success is uncertain. These conceptions are adaptable to other contexts, notably but not exclusively political institutions and institutions of governance.

Conference topic

Panel no. 21 - An Anthropology of Policy: Legacies and Future Challenges

Preferred format

Oral



#200 Hybrid Social Movement over Health Care in Contemporary Nepal

Yuka Nakamura from JP (yukanakamura1225@gmail.com) (National Institutes for the Humanities National Mu)



Abstract

Abstract title

Hybrid Social Movement over Health Care in Contemporary Nepal

Abstract text

The presentation seeks to illuminate the state of social movements and inclusion related to health care and quality of life in contemporary Nepal. In particular, the presentation focuses on the medical reform movement lead by Dr. Govinda K.C. as well as changes in public medical care system after the establishment of new federal system. In Nepal, social movements for medical care reform have gradually emerged after the end of the People’s War in 2006, and the transition towards a federal system. The medical reform movement lead by Govinda K.C., which started with a focus on medical education system, has been seeking to achieve equitable medical education since 2012. Support for this social movement using the hunger strikes has grown, arousing other movements involving health and quality of life. These movements, unlike the Maoist class struggle are gaining support across social classes and generations. The social movements on medical care and health in contemporary Nepal has a character of hybrid from in terms of focusing on the protest repertoire of fasting, which has a strong roots in South Asian tradition. The participation and support from people beyond social classes and age groups are growing against the neo-liberal transformations of medical care and quality of life. This presentation describes the challenges and possibility of this hybrid social movement in Nepal. This presentation is based on a survey conducted in the capital city Kathmandu and the Dang district in western Nepal from 2017 to 2019, as well as analyses of new paper articles.

Conference topic

Panel no. 73 - New Social Movements and Development: Perspectives from Global South

Preferred format

Oral



#201 Indigenous peoples' traditional knowledge in the context of climate change

Leslie E. F. Page from US (lefpage@yahoo.com) (WholeWoman Center)



Abstract

Abstract title

Indigenous peoples' traditional knowledge in the context of climate change

Abstract text

Over millennia, indigenous peoples all around the globe have been marginalized, and their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) has been ignored. There is now a collaboration between the United Nations University Traditional Knowledge Initiative (UNU-TKI) and the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (iPCC) seeking to bridge the gaps between TEK and climate science. Resilience in the face of change is embedded in indigenous knowledge and know-how, cultural values and attitudes. Major goals of the collaboration include promoting respect for TEK and empowering indigenous people to have a greater say in developing global, regional and local policies to address climate change while supporting their knowledge, cultures and self-determined development.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#202 The Shaolin Kungfu between Tradition and Modernity

Marta Neskovic from RS (martaneskovic@outlook.com) (University of Belgrade)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Shaolin Kungfu between Tradition and Modernity

Abstract text

This paper is based on a two-year fieldwork in the Shaolin Temple, China, and informed by the theory of structural functionalism. Our aim has been to understand the transition of the Shaolin kungfu from tradition to modernity, placing the accent on the continuity of its development process. The modern times that we refer to start with the reforms in the early 1980s, when the Chinese state introduced the religious freedom policies, which allowed the Buddhist monastic community to gradually revive all aspects of its life in the Temple. However, the revitalization of the Temple’s heritage and its contemporary international promotion has been made possible because of a sincere devotion of the monastic community, which was redeveloping and embodying the traditional knowledge acquired in the 1,500 year long Temple's history, as well as due to their proper understanding of what the Shaolin kungfu has been and what it should be in the future. Understanding the dynamic relationship between the structure and functionality of Shaolin kungfu, and the ways it is connected to the overall socio-political circumstances, has allowed us to comprehend the cultural value of kungfu and to lay ground for formulation of the appropriate intangible cultural heritage preservation policies. These policies should be created with the aim to support the transition of the Shaolin kungfu traditional knowledge and skills into modern times and to ensure their further development and enrichment.

Conference topic

Panel no. 25 - Looking for New Analytical Frameworks in the Study of Cultural Heritage and Modernization

Preferred format

Oral



#203 Dialogue with J. K. Fairbank and G. William Skinner: Cantonese Businessmen and Lingnan & National Market System from the Perspective of Neo-classical Structural-Functionalism

Yue Wu from CN (love.ue@foxmail.com) (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)



Abstract

Abstract title

Dialogue with J. K. Fairbank and G. William Skinner: Cantonese Businessmen and Lingnan & National Market System from the Perspective of Neo-classical Structural-Functionalism

Abstract text

J. K. Fairbank’s "Impact-response model" and G. William Skinner’s "macro-regional theory" are two among the most influential theories in international and Chinese academic circles. This paper argues that the Cantonese businessmen and their Lingnan as well as the national market system in Ming and Qing dynasties, were based on self-development of China, rather than as a response to western impact. Looking at the social structure of Cantonese businessmen, the authors point out that the different relationships between government, folk and business existed. The central government supported the thirteen Hong of Canton and acted as "protective umbrella" by issuing preferential policies such as "one trading port". At the same time, the folk trade, i.e. the Hong merchants "beehive", the guildhall "beehive", the firm "beehive", and the family "beehive" developed the commodity trade together. Under the dual development of top-down "umbrella" support and bottom-up "beehive" force, Cantonese businessmen have established the market system of Lingnan, and even promoted throughout the country the regional and national urban structure corresponding to the market system. Therefore, this paper also complements and expands the "regionalized market theory", developed by G. William Skinner.

Conference topic

Panel no. 25 - Looking for New Analytical Frameworks in the Study of Cultural Heritage and Modernization

Preferred format

Oral



#206 Standardized Yi Language Scripts and the relevant supplied Design for the Pre-school Education

Ding YANG from CN (281467078@qq.com) (Beijing Forestry University) , Zhiyong Yang from CN (281467078@qq.com) (Sichuan University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Standardized Yi Language Scripts and the relevant supplied Design for the Pre-school Education

Abstract text

In 2015, Liangshan first proposed the "one village, one kindergarten" program, which has been widely popularized in Liangshan. This brings more resources to preschool education, but at the same time, there is a huge lack and negligence of attention to the education of the native language and local culture. From the point of view of cultural reproduction, native knowledge provides modern designers with a huge amount of splendid resource : the epic and myth of the original view of the Yi universe described by a large number of Yi literature, the writing system-making culture of Yi language, and the Yi literature such as the Yi creation epic Meige and hne wo tep yy, which reflect the Yi creation view. This paper will discuss YI classical based new preshool products such as (leer-mamu-araniu--amonire-ayiazhi)system.These creative resources give the deep cultural foundation to apply the design of the Pre-school Education. Friedrich Froebel in Germany, first put forward "the education of Spielgaben /Froebel Gifts " as an idea of pre-school education, and attached importance to the preparation of manual materials, teaching aids and environmental settings. The pre-school education in the Yi area of Liangshan is still in the initial stage of development, while the mother tongue education of young children in the pre-school education environment is still in the marginalized situation, which needs to improved by learning from the modern educational concept. However, the native knowledge should also be paid enough attention to, so as to create a natural and scientific pre-school education environment.

Conference topic

Panel no. 74 - Coming of Age on Bilingual Education in Liangshan and New Global Comparisons

Preferred format

Oral



#208 Ritual, Practice and Folk Religion ---- the case study on three ethnic groups, China

Haiyan Xing from CN (xinghaiyan@126.com) (Shanghai Normal University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Ritual, Practice and Folk Religion ---- the case study on three ethnic groups, China

Abstract text

Yugu, Xibo, and Tu are three ethnic groups in Northwest China. Folk religion, transmitted intergenerational by those three groups, has shaped the political, economic, and cultural development of their society and continues to meet their emotional and religious needs. In three ethnic groups, the folk belief systems, the theogony of folk deities reflects living and social environments, and it can be divided among local deities worship, ancestors worship, and nature worship. Deities and evil spirits are both supernatural beings who influence the lives of humans. The wars between them preserve the vitality of the folk religion; the evil spirits cause misfortune or disaster, while the benevolent deities meet people’s needs, help them solve problems, and restore the original order of society. Any social or political disorder is interpreted as a result of the anger of the deities. As the carriers and communicators of folk religion, religious specialists are believed to have supernatural powers. There are several kinds of specialists which practice divination and sorcery. They do this through the practice of a series of rituals that ward off evil spirits, illness, and natural disasters. In addition, the religious specialists in contrast have authority because of their own inherent powers, so they also have ceremonial and political roles as village leaders. In this paper, the belief structures and ritual practices of three ethnic groups (Yugu, Xibo and Tu) were investigated. It attempts to explain the influencing factors and the inherent structural characteristics of the changes in ethnic folk religions.

Conference topic

Panel no. 67 - Religious Cultures Under the Earth

Preferred format

Oral



#209 Becoming artists: learning disabled practioners and professionalisation

Anne-Marie Atkinson from GB (anne-marie.atkinson@stu.mmu.ac.uk) (Manchester Metropolitan University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Becoming artists: learning disabled practioners and professionalisation

Abstract text

This paper considers how the culture of Venture Arts, a Manchester (UK) art studio that works with people with learning disabilities, reconfigures professionalisation in relation to artists, and therefore proposes affirmative relationalities between learning disabled and non-disabled people. Conventional readings might consider the ‘professional’ artists in the studio to be the ones who hold arts degrees and receive a regular wage for their labour (in other words, the non-disabled practitioners). However, an alternative reading that takes into consideration the substantial artistic labour of the practitioners with learning disabilities; their financial commitment to developing their practice; and the advocacy that the studio does on their behalf - which is akin to gallery representation and has earned some of the learning disabled artists prestigious commissions and awards - reimagines ‘the artist’ as an embodied process. This is further compounded by the culture of the studio that aims to enable creative expression without directing, consequently positioning the non-disabled practitioners in the role of technician, assistant, or critical friend. Hence, the learning disabled practitioners challenge disabling perceptions of learning disability and reconfigure their professional relationality through becoming artists. The emergence of a hybrid identity of ‘learning disabled artist’ rethinks both the potentialities of learning disability beyond ‘overcoming’ disability, and reinvigorates art as a transgressive, limitless space beyond restrictive and market-driven notions of value. This paper will draw upon autoethnographic fieldnotes produced during 12 weeks of fieldwork (Nov 2019 - Feb 2020) where I occupied a position ‘alongside’ the learning disabled artist in the studio.

Conference topic

Panel no. 06 - Feminist-inspired Activist Imaginaries for Making Change: Social Making Legacies and Methodological Framings

Preferred format

Oral



#210 A common language. Institutions, third sector and counter-hegemonic movements in Turin, Italy

Maria Vasile from NL (m.vasile@fsw.leidenuniv.nl) (Leiden University) , Antonio Vesco from GR (antonio.vesco@unito.it) (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki)



Abstract

Abstract title

A common language. Institutions, third sector and counter-hegemonic movements in Turin, Italy

Abstract text

This paper discusses how alternative political languages and practices intermesh with neoliberal schemes of urban governance in contemporary Italy. We present two ethnographic cases from fieldworks conducted by the authors in Turin to explore how emerging political narratives around public/common goods and right to the city travel across political realities, namely an artist collective and a non-profit association, as well as are re-appropriated by bigger players such as local institutions and the private sector. We contextualize these ethnographic encounters by introducing urban political transformations in Turin: from the narrative on the conversion from industrial to smart city claimed by the old local administrations to the current municipal season and a growing economic role of the private sector in the social realm. We then describe how grassroots collective actors, public institutions and the private sector enter into conversation. The COVID-19 emergency particularly reveals their different languages and approaches to matters of rights and commoning, while clearly revealing the dynamics that have rendered most of these actors’ action interdependent. From a theoretical standpoint, these processes can be interpreted by connecting institutional ethics, morality and daily political action from the bottom. This analysis also contributes to the discussion on new institutional strategies for setting up urban regeneration and citizenship agendas. It also aims to shed light onto moving boundaries between the politics of counter-hegemonic movements, third sector and public interventions, and adds to literature on state legitimacy and imagination in the Italian context.

Conference topic

Panel no. 88 - Emerging Urban Political Subjectivities: Synergies, Tensions, Contradictions and Transformations in Pluralizing Cities

Preferred format

Oral



#211 Representations of Nomadism in the Northwestern Sahara

Matthew Porges from GB (msp5@st-andrews.ac.uk) (University of St Andrews)



Abstract

Abstract title

Representations of Nomadism in the Northwestern Sahara

Abstract text

Etic stereotyped representations of nomads have been subjected to a justified critique within anthropology, yet nomadism retains practical and symbolic significance for people engaged in routine practices of mobility. This paper examines the cultural legacy of mobility in the Northwestern Sahara, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Mauritania, Algeria, and Western Sahara. Today, a population of around 170,000 Sahrawi refugees exist in Algeria and in the eastern part of Western Sahara, with another 40,000 in Mauritania. While these people may not be directly engaged in nomadic pastoral activity, they retain economic and cultural ties to their nomadic heritage, and draw on that legacy of mobility in different ways. Representations of Saharan mobility, from the colonial period to the present, have evolved alongside the practices of a population that has alternately resisted and creatively utilised these tropes, laying the groundwork for overlapping territorial imaginations.

Conference topic

Panel no. 10 - Lost in Representation: Changes and Paradoxes in the Nomads' Life

Preferred format

Oral



#213 Adolescent Obesity Transition from Stigma to Positive Body Image: The Role of Popular Media

Leslie Sue Lieberman from US (lslieberman@gmail.com) (University of Central Florida)



Abstract

Abstract title

Adolescent Obesity Transition from Stigma to Positive Body Image: The Role of Popular Media

Abstract text

Popular media (e.g., magazines, television, movies) and social media websites influence behaviors, self-image and define social norms. American adolescents (13-18 years) are prime users of both and logged-in over 7 hours of screen time a day in 2019 (Smartsocial.com/social-media). Last year (2019) was a watershed year for body positivity with the mainstream rise of Lizzo, “the body positive goddess” an obese, sexy multi-talented performer named Time Magazine Entertainer of the Year. She also has a huge presence on social media (e.g., 8.6 million followers on Instagram, May, 2020). She has catalyzed a ‘body confidence revolution’ challenging medical and public health messages about obesity, the disease, its rising prevalence among adolescents and its co-morbid biopsychosocial and economic costs. Increasingly, popular and social media and organizations such as the Association for Health at Every Size are promoting inclusiveness at any size, self-love, self-esteem and an anti-fat shaming agenda. This presentation elucidates relevant issues: implicit fat bias and stigmatization, failure of weight reduction interventions, depression and eating disorders, role of social media messaging, reimaged sexiness, etc. Quantitative and qualitative thematic analyses use PubMed: ‘positive body image’, ‘social media and body size’; PsyInfo; obesity organization websites (e.g., National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance); reports of social media references to ‘Lizzo’ and body positivity (i.e., Instagram, TikToK, Facebook, Twitter); and interviews with members of the swimsuit industry. This study documents the current body positive transition: large body acceptance vs. prejudice, socio-environmental vs. individual weight control efforts, and health outcomes vs. weight loss.

Conference topic

Panel no. 77 - Health Transition in Modern Societies

Preferred format

Oral



#216 Transfer of Medical Indigenous Knowledge: Central European Case

Veronika Beranská from CZ (veronika.beranska@seznam.cz) (Institute of Ethnology of the CAS) , Zdeněk Uherek from CZ (zdenek.uherek@fsv.cuni.cz) (Institute of Ethnology of the CAS, Charles Uni.)



Abstract

Abstract title

Transfer of Medical Indigenous Knowledge: Central European Case

Abstract text

Practices called indigenous knowledge are transferred between groups and generations and change their meanings in time and space. Whether or not the group accepts them is determined by their efficiency but also the power relations reflected by laws. Part of the transfer is a conceptual apparatus that determines what is considered indigenous knowledge. Indigenous knowledge is not all practices that the group has been using for generations. It is a part of knowledge which is exoticized and which is usually described as ancient because its relation to the past becomes a political affair: society decides whether to use it or to reject it. In this contribution we will focus on indigenous knowledge of Czech ethnic minorities relocated from Ukraine to then Czechoslovakia after the WWII and in the 1990s. We concentrate on the elements of folk healing in past and present. We suggest: a) elements of medical treatment that are regularly used and do not attract any attention; b) knowledge we know from the past and not applied; c) healing practices with the potential of further intergenerational reproduction which are conceptualized indigenous knowledge and are therefore a part of the discourse on their either muzealization or practical use in everyday life. The decision-making process is influenced by the quantity and quality of professional medical services. Substantial role, however, plays that the state medical establishment in the Czech Republic does not recognize medical pluralism and the legislation does not allow the development of procedures other than those declared by the state.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#217 Ethnic return migration. A case of double migration between Argentina and Croatia

Paula Gadze from HR (paulagadze@gmail.com) (University of Buenos Aires) , Paula Gadze from HR (paulagadze@gmail.com) (University of Buenos Aires) , Zuleika Crosa from AR (zuleikacrosa@gmail.com) (CONICET and University of Buenos Aires)



Abstract

Abstract title

Ethnic return migration. A case of double migration between Argentina and Croatia

Abstract text

Migration studies classify different types of population mobility: emigration, immigration, re-immigration to new destinations and return to the place of origin. However, considering the investigations of the descendants of Croatian immigration in Argentina we can recognize the so-called return migration to the place of ethnic origin. Ethnic return is analysed in this paper, in which we examine the Croatian language learning program called Croaticum, in the city of Zagreb. The scholarship policy for the study of the Croatian language is revised, considering that it is not directly related to the immigration topic, but nevertheless has consequences in this migration movement. Our analysis is based on the return of the third and fourth generation of Croats from Argentina. We approach the ethnographic study of this population considering the peculiarity of their double migration. They are generational migrants because their life experiences were permeated by family migration. They are also ethnic migrants, their arrival to Croatia is related to the possibility of obtaining citizenship and legal documentation but it also involves processes faced by other immigrants. We aim to investigate those experiences that combine family immigration in Argentina and the integration in Croatia based on the importance of social capital and the role of social networks.

Conference topic

Panel no. 48 - "Twice-Migrants" in the Context of Nationality, Nationalism and Nationhood

Preferred format

Oral



#218 Urgency, Emergency, Emotion

Alexandra Schwell from AT (alexandra.schwell@aau.at) (University of Klagenfurt)



Abstract

Abstract title

Urgency, Emergency, Emotion

Abstract text

In 2020, first the climate change discussion and then the Corona crisis are only the most salient examples where notions of urgency, emergency, and exception have increasingly entered the vocabulary of politics and media, informing not only political debates but also legislations. Following Agamben (and Schmitt), sovereignty relates to the power to decide the instauration of state of exception and to act outside of the law; only the sovereign can “speak” exception. While the “state of exception” as a political strategy has been subject to much research and discussion, the role of emotions has been largely overlooked and undertheorized. The paper seeks to introduce “urgency” as an analytical concept and to link the invocation of “urgency” and the “state of exception” to both the study of emotions and temporality. It argues that invoking and declaring “urgency” to prevent or end the “state of exception” is a performative practice that makes a lasting impression on social actors, with far-reaching effects for democratic political culture. While the state of exception describes a crisis in the present, the notion of urgency holds projections of an apocalyptic future. It is a securitizing practice that serves to legitimize extreme measures entailing the suspension of legal rights and basic freedoms while promising to restore safety and security in the future with reference to an imagined past. At the same time, the invocation of urgency is a speech-act which creates a particular good or group of actors whose future needs to be protected.

Conference topic

Panel no. 45 - Whose Future Is It? Temporality and Asymmetric Politics in Times of Uncertainty

Preferred format

Oral



#219 Mural art as an aesthetic vehicle and a strategy for urban and political change

Raphaela von Weichs from CH (raphaela.vonweichs@unil.ch) (University of Lausanne) , Monika Salzbrunn from CH (monika.salzbrunn@unil.ch) (University of Lausanne) , Federica Moretti from CH (federica.moretti@unil.ch) (University of Lausanne) , Sara Wiederkehr from CH (sara.wiederkehr@unil.ch) (University of Lausanne)



Abstract

Abstract title

Mural art as an aesthetic vehicle and a strategy for urban and political change

Abstract text

This paper investigates mural art as an aesthetic vehicle and strategy for urban and political change. It asks how people use mural art to comment on failed politics, infrastructural crises and disasters, and to express their imaginations f or the future. The paper discusses mural art in super-diverse urban contexts. In Yaounde, Cameroon, political protest and counter-culture are frequently repressed and the public space is subject to tight control. Mural art in this context is accredited no or little cultural value. Yet, the street is a public space resistant to total control and street artists engage in murals to resist urban disintegration, to imagine the future, and to create new forms of urban communality. In Los Angeles, mural art has been established for several decades, partly thanks to Chicana/o artists. The latter have used murals to rewrite American history, render colonization processes visible, and denounce racial, social, gender-related inequalities and discrimination of LGBTQ+ people. An unintended consequence of these nowadays famous murals are gentrification processes and increasing tourism in these areas yet strengthening social fabric in their political and social claims. Hence, mural artists have become active actors of rescaling processes of cities and districts and within cities. In Marseille, the concrete wall surrounding highly contested construction works became a public canvas of collective political expression denouncing a lack of public consultation. In current struggles towards and against urban changes, murals, stencils, paste-ups, bombings, throw-ups, and installations turn into artivistic strategies of assertion, caught between outcry and control.

Conference topic

Panel no. 70 - Artivism for Urban Change

Preferred format

Oral



#220 The Project StreetArtCEI: Staring at Walls for Academic Change and Social-Economic Development

Clara Sarmento from PT (clarasarmento@gmail.com) (Centre for Intercultural Studies, ISCAP-P.PORTO)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Project StreetArtCEI: Staring at Walls for Academic Change and Social-Economic Development

Abstract text

In contemporary urban Northern Portugal, cultural tourism is a main factor of socio-economic empowerment, decentralization and development, provided it does not become another factor of gentrification and social segregation, as responses to changing urban identities must be democratic and inclusive. Aware of this challenge, the Center for Intercultural Studies (www.iscap.ipp.pt/cei) developed the project StreetArtCEI – Routes of Graffiti & Street Art in Porto and Northern Portugal (www.streetartcei.com/), covering a thriving, albeit peripheral, geographical space populated by medium-sized cities, which epitomize a rich variety of distinct urban narratives. This paper describes the project’s concepts, objectives, methodology, current results and impact, thus falling under the scope of the panel organized by the ERC ARTIVISM goup for CombART2020. Using the theoretical tools of cultural, urban, and literary studies, StreetArtCEI blurred the tenuous frontiers between dominant and marginal cultures, their practices, symbols and aesthetic manifestations, as expressions of site-specific cultural dynamics. The polissemic visual narratives of graffiti and street art display valuable information on the citizen’s socio-spatial practices, perceptions and concerns, therefore work methodologies involve photographing, categorizing and extracting recurrent patterns, from which new routes emerge, not only for tourists but also – and especially – for the use and empowerment of local communities.

Conference topic

Panel no. 70 - Artivism for Urban Change

Preferred format

Oral



#221 Experience and sense of home in oldest-old retirement home residents from Zagreb, Croatia

Ana Perinić Lewis from HR (aperinic@inantro.hr) (Institute for Anthropological Research) , Tatjana Škarić-Jurić from HR (tanja@inantro.hr) (Institute for Anthropological Research) , Jasminka Despot Lučanin from HR (jdespot@hrstud.hr) (Faculty of Croatian Studies, University of Zagreb) , Šime Smolić from HR (ssmolic@efzg.hr) (Faculty of Economics & Business, Zagreb)



Abstract

Abstract title

Experience and sense of home in oldest-old retirement home residents from Zagreb, Croatia

Abstract text

Recent research on aging focus mainly on the experiences of spaces and places in late life. The retirement home has a dual spatial nature as an institution and as a home, producing a mixture of institutional and homelike atmosphere. Private life there is concentrated in limited space, so there are numerous environmental, social and personal characteristics that affect the perceptions of space and home life of elderly residents. The presentation is part of the interdisciplinary project ˝Health, cultural, and biological determinants of longevity: anthropological perspective on survival in very old age - HECUBA˝ (HRZZ IP-2018-01-2497). We show the results of an extensive anthropological survey conducted in 2007/09 in 13 retirement homes in Zagreb, encompassing 310 persons (25.5% males) without dementia (according to Folstein test scores), aged 85 - 101 years. The Quality of Life Questionnaire included structured questions and scales, along with open-ended questions. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of psychosocial factors to the life satisfaction in old persons, predominantly based on analyses of the responses to the open-ended questions. We identified and interpreted the following effects of the living environment on old persons' life satisfaction: perceptions of home space (private and semi-private residents' rooms, shared spaces, semi-public areas), advantages and disadvantages of home space and levels of privacy, the daily use of the space through participation in a variety of activities. In addition, we focused on the respondents' attitudes and emotions towards their "own home" and activities from their previous home-life (memories, regrets, nostalgia).

Conference topic

Panel no. 63 - Coming of (Old) Age on Earth: Imagining Our Aging Future

Preferred format

Oral



#222 Oreteti. Connecting Humans to God

Lorenzo D'Angelo from GB (l.dangelo@reading.ac.uk) (University of Reading)



Abstract

Abstract title

Oreteti. Connecting Humans to God

Abstract text

This film explores the difficulties faced by a Maasai agro-pastoral community in Tanzania, as a time of climate crisis stimulates cultural and economic changes. Through the voice of Philipo, a young Maasai man, it describes the importance of a rain-making ritual. At the centre of this ritual is a plant that is sacred to the Maasai, the Oreteti. This is not a common plant in the semi-arid regions of East Africa. Often, it is found near water sources – particularly valuable for agro-pastoral communities, especially during drought. For this reason, the Oreteti is associated with the possibility of overcoming difficulties in times of crisis, as well as with fertility and women. It is no coincidence that women play a fundamental role in the rain-making ritual; without their presence and their prayers, it would lose its meaning. In Philipo’s village, the arrival of the Lutheran Church and successive famines and droughts have accelerated processes of change. As Philipo himself points out, all of this, in turn, has had palpable effects on economic decisions and cultural choices as well as on gender relation. Ultimately, this changes the meaning of the Oreteti ritual itself. In conclusion, we are presented with a reflection by a young Maasai on how his community can overcome current difficulties, given that connections between humans, and between the human and the divine, have been exposed to new meaning.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#223 Teaching and Learning with the eHRAF Databases

Francine Barone from US (francine.barone@yale.edu) (HRAF at Yale University) , Matthew Longcore from US (matthew.longcore@yale.edu) (HRAF at Yale University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Teaching and Learning with the eHRAF Databases

Abstract text

The Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) is a nonprofit anthropological research organization founded at Yale University in 1949. HRAF produces two membership-supported online databases for cross-cultural research: eHRAF World Cultures and eHRAF Archaeology. Combined, these collections represent the largest anthropological databank in the world. Additionally, HRAF offers open access resources for teaching and learning. Virtually every HRAF-built project is conceived, developed, produced and distributed by our small and dedicated in-house team. Our goal is to expand access to educational resources for faculty, students, librarians, and researchers around the world. From colleges, universities, museums, and libraries to cross-cultural researchers within and beyond the social sciences and the academy, we believe that a dedication to cultural discovery in all forms can be at the forefront of a public-facing anthropology. This paper will address the challenges of developing, curating, and maintaining digital resources for teaching and learning anthropology. Two of our recent and ongoing activities aimed at expanding global access to a broader base of instructors, researchers, and students are the HRAF Community College Initiative and the HRAF Global Scholarship. Leveraging our existing digital presence to improve online teaching and learning while promoting anthropology worldwide is a welcome, yet daunting, challenge. Enhancing and diversifying our Teaching eHRAF resources with digital and remote learning in mind is a project through which we hope to connect the past, present, and future possibilities of technology for students and instructors alike to engage with anthropology.

Conference topic

Panel no. 41 - Technology: Teaching and Learning Anthropology Around the World

Preferred format

Oral



#224 Disciplinary cartographies and connectors: Working at, with and through the margins of European anthropology

Francisco Martínez from GB (pacomartinez82@gmail.com) (University of Leicester)



Abstract

Abstract title

Disciplinary cartographies and connectors: Working at, with and through the margins of European anthropology

Abstract text

This paper shifts the argument from geography and hierarchies of knowledge, to the question about the conjuncture of the objective conditions of knowledge production and the subjective perception of working in Estonia, a country located on the margins of Europe. The author discusses the relationship between knowledge production and place by studying different notions of disciplinary and personal peripherality. In an auto-ethnographic manner, he discloses some of the power relations at work and the politics of representation of an anthropology being done at the periphery of European scholarship and out of the disciplinary walls. The article contributes to the discussion on the need to differentiate, contextualise and problematise the question of the academic marginality and relevance, making more nuanced studies by putting the ethnographic focus on the conditions of possibility among practitioners and the state of being peripheral. By analysing his own professional trajectory, the author surmises that the question of centre or periphery depends on the perspective applied (i.e., methods, labour conditions, institutional support, funding, the scale, access to jobs…) Also, he argues that there is a distinct form of reflexivity at the margins, as well as a distinct temporal regime – characterised by discontinuity. To contrast and complement his personal insights, the author invited fifteen scholars working in Estonia to share their experience of researching “at the margins”. Based on their responses, the author concludes by admitting that being at the periphery is relevant, yet circumstantial – something to be aware of, yet not definitive or a determinant.

Conference topic

Panel no. 110 - Next Generation Anthropology: Cosmopolitanian Anthropology, World Anthropology, World Anthropologies, Trans-national Anthropology, or Something Else?

Preferred format

Oral



#225 Accommodating land fragmentation, environmental degradation, neoliberal economies and forced exile The case of Jordanian and Syrian pastoralists in peri-urban Jordan

Mathilde Gingembre from LB (mathilde.gingembre@gmail.com) (PASTRES research project)



Abstract

Abstract title

Accommodating land fragmentation, environmental degradation, neoliberal economies and forced exile The case of Jordanian and Syrian pastoralists in peri-urban Jordan

Abstract text

Drawing on ethnographic and survey research in peri-urban areas of northern Jordan, this paper discusses the accommodations that livestock herders have had to make to adapt to rangeland fragmentation and degradation. By exploring the livelihood pathways of Syrian pastoralists in their exile in Jordan, it also seeks to reveal what the experience of being a “pastoral refugee” may look and feel like for Bedouin livestock herders who have been moving across the territory of northern Arabia for centuries. The paper outlines how the socio-economic policies developed by governing authorities since the mandate years have, together with technological change, significantly altered the nature of pastoral mobility, of land control and of livestock herding in Jordan. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative data on both Jordanian and Syrian livestock owners, it explores the lived experiences of pastoralism in the current context of dispossession, neoliberal competition and deteriorated grazing resources. It then describes the differential livelihood trajectories that Syrian pastoralists have adopted in Jordan since fleeing the war, highlighting the additional challenges, but also opportunities, offered to them by their host country’s fast move towards urbanisation and livestock absentee ownership. It closes on observations regarding the importance, for Syrian Bedouins, of social capital, premigration contextual factors and group interdependence in integrating the Jordanian social fabric and rebuilding pastoral livelihoods in exile.

Conference topic

Panel no. 17 - Nomadic Landscapes in Waiting: Exploring Forms of Engagement with a Changing Earth

Preferred format

Oral



#227 Against the anti-gender illiberal politics: Contemporary feminist mobilisations in East Central Europe

Mina Petra Baginova from CZ (minabaginova@gmail.com) (FATIGUE (H2020)/Charles University Prague)



Abstract

Abstract title

Against the anti-gender illiberal politics: Contemporary feminist mobilisations in East Central Europe

Abstract text

In recent years the increasingly authoritarian governments in East Central Europe have employed anti-gender discourse that is characterised by an opposition to questions related to issues such as reproductive rights, access to abortion, the rights of LGBTQ folks, sexual education, or legal tools for elimination of violence against women. These dynamics go hand in hand with the emergence of conservative and often fundamentalist anti-gender movements in East Central Europe and elsewhere. At the same time there has been a significant increase of women’s protests and feminist mobilizations. In East Central Europe, particularly in Poland, attacks on reproductive rights have mobilized diverse actors around the large-scale protests across the country, challenging the conservative policy-making decisions, as well as inspiring the formation of new activist platforms. Similarly, in Slovakia, a new wave of protests to protect the reproductive rights have emerged as a reaction to the attempts to limit legal access to abortion, opening up a space for questions around different forms of feminisms and intersectional resistance. Based on my work with femnist activist cultures in East Central Europe, in this paper I aim to explore the reflections on questions such as: What are the novelties of new feminist mobilizations in East Central Europe within the context of political crises in the region today? How do the new feminist movements deal with the emergence of gendered far-right politics? How the emergence of anti-gender movements and anti-gender discourse challenge the feminist movements in their efforts for systematic change after the 1989 post-socialist transitions.

Conference topic

Panel no. 06 - Feminist-inspired Activist Imaginaries for Making Change: Social Making Legacies and Methodological Framings

Preferred format

Oral



#228 Demeaning exoticism in Conrad & Wilbur’s “Raj”

Trupti Shashikant Hallikeri from IN (trupti.hallikeri@gmail.com) (Karnatak University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Demeaning exoticism in Conrad & Wilbur’s “Raj”

Abstract text

The status quo of women in most parts of the world is embedded in patriarchal constructs even in the 20th century. In the light of such constructs the aim is to examine the colonized Indian women as reflected in the work "Raj" of Francophone writers : Wilbur and Conrad, pertaining to specific genre of French literature, as feeble, vulnerable and helpless under the dominant imperialistic rulers. The above mentioned francophone authors seem to have projected the exotic stereotyped exploitation of women in Indian ritualistic context such as 'sati' and 'devadasi' systems in particular and thereby depicting them as voluptuous sexual and seductive. This presentation also takes account of the sexist images and the descriptions in order to ascertain if these projections are a reality or exaggerations.

Conference topic

Panel no. 06 - Feminist-inspired Activist Imaginaries for Making Change: Social Making Legacies and Methodological Framings

Preferred format

Oral



#229 Social bots in the context of democratic processes: manipulators or assistants?

valeriya vasilkova from RU (v-vasilkova@list.ru) (St. Petersburg State University) , Nataliya Legostaeva from RU (legostaeva.rozhdenie@gmail.com) (St. Petersburg State University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Social bots in the context of democratic processes: manipulators or assistants?

Abstract text

In recent years, a new research trend has emerged in the study of the problem of social bots, including a change in methodological and ethical guidelines. We are talking about the transition from a narrow (technology-centered) understanding of social bots to a wider (socially-centered). The first approach appeared in the field of computer sciences and was connected to the research of computer security and fighting against them as bots were considered polluters of the information space (negative connotation). The second approach has developed within the framework of social sciences and allows a broader and more diversified look at the structural, functional features of social bots, considering social bots as a tool to expand the informational influence of various social actors in social networks (neutral connotation). In this regard, social bots can be considered as platforms for the formation of a democratic market of ideas, as a way of promoting conscious democracy in social networks. The authors summarize a few studies of the functioning of civilian bots in various countries, as well as present the results of their study, which identified and described several similar bots operating in the Russian social online network VKontakte. Content analysis of these botnets reflects various forms of civil participation: representing the interests of civil society groups (informing about the most important social problems for these groups), call for collaborative action in online and offline space (petitions, rallies, pickets), social control over the activities of officials and ensuring transparency of information from government and business structures.

Conference topic

Panel no. 21 - An Anthropology of Policy: Legacies and Future Challenges

Preferred format

Oral



#230 Tuareg cross-border solidarity and distancing: egalitarian kinship ideology in support of social inequality (Niger/Nigeria and Niger/Algeria).

Clare Oxby from GB (clare.oxby@anthro.unibe.ch) (University of Bern)



Abstract

Abstract title

Tuareg cross-border solidarity and distancing: egalitarian kinship ideology in support of social inequality (Niger/Nigeria and Niger/Algeria).

Abstract text

This paper explores Tuareg social organisation, especially how, despite a prominent egalitarian ideology rooted in inherited social status and flexible bilateral kinship links, social inequality persists to this day. It is of a type that outside observers have categorised with a variety of concepts such as ‘feudal’, ‘caste-like’, ‘slavery-based’ (Meilassoux 1975, Bonte 1975, Lecocq 2005, Rossi 2010). The paper takes the case of Tuareg based in Central Niger, and is based on several decades of research in Niger up to 2010 including trips into adjacent N Nigeria; and a 2011 trip to the adjacent Hoggar region of S Algeria. It explores several of the arguments advanced by Borgerhoff Muller (2010) in a comparative study of pastoralism and wealth inequality that focuses on intergenerational transmission of livestock wealth and control of water, pasture and labour. It looks at institutional mechanisms both for cooperation, such as high status kinship group formation, strategic alliance marriage, pre-inheritance (passing down wealth before death), loans; and for maintaining social distance, such as endogamy; the breaking up of low status family ties in order to prioritise the labour needs of high status producers; the constraints to low status accumulation of wealth and access to water, pasture and labour; and the way the loan system can work to the disadvantage of poorer people. It takes the example of border crossings, which show up, simplify, and may even be argued to deepen the persistent inequalities hidden beneath the openly voiced egalitarian solidarity.

Conference topic

Panel no. 05 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#231 Faith-based perspectives on refugees in Poland: Discourses, debates, and social practices

Izabela Kujawa from PL (iza_kujawa@yahoo.com) (Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań) , Izabella Main from PL (imain@amu.edu.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Faith-based perspectives on refugees in Poland: Discourses, debates, and social practices

Abstract text

Our presentation aims to shed light on the process of invoking religious values when supporting, neglecting or differentiating (into deserving or not) refugees and migrants. It is based on empirical research analyzing proclamations and activities of religious leaders and civil society actors providing assistance to refugees and migrants in Poland and in settings where Polish humanitarians are active. Even though Poland has been accepting small numbers of refugees for years now, it was not until 2015 that the discussion surrounding their presence captured wide public attention. Anti-Muslim rhetoric played a large role in the political election campaign of 2015 and in justifying the lack of participation in relocation schemes. At the same time there were two subsequent developments regarding refugee and migrant support. First, the presence of refugees in Poland – often Muslim Chechens – resulted in developing both assistance programs and projects aiming at community outreach and advocacy. In many cases, the pro-refugee social practices were based on religious motivations to help the needy “sisters and brothers”, on a deep belief in the universality of human rights and respect for all human beings. Second, various support programs were established to reach out to communities in the places of conflict, often directing this assistance to Christian communities. Programs like “a family for a family” or “church in need” are articulations of establishing hierarchies of deserving refugees. The proposal is based on our ongoing fieldwork conducted within the project “Norms and Values in the European Migration and Refugee Crisis.

Conference topic

Panel no. 93 - European Makings of "Good" and "Bad" Refugees: Contestations of the Right to Have Rights

Preferred format

Oral



#232 Creating a hook family. Ethnographical data from an ongoing fieldwork on contemporary body suspension in Europe

federica manfredi from PT (federicamanfredi@hotmail.fr) (institute of social sciences, university of lisbon)



Abstract

Abstract title

Creating a hook family. Ethnographical data from an ongoing fieldwork on contemporary body suspension in Europe

Abstract text

Kinship’s relationships involves an intense cultural labor, where biology is narrated and re-elaborated in order to properly narrate people, their connections and their stories. The present contribution, based on ethnographical data on body suspensions, discusses how the concept of family can be elaborated in order to create sense of identity and of belonging in a group of people who doesn’t share kinship ties but that create them though embodied shared experiences. A body suspension is the elevation of a human body through hooks temporary inserted in the skin as piercings; with a system of ropes, hooks are connected to an above scaffolding hanging-up protagonists. People gather in annual-based festivals and private events around Europe to suspend, and they self-identify as member of the body suspension community, also defined as hook-family. The relational value of the practice is narrated in family terms, stressing the importance of sharing blood and pain involved in the suspension experience. Biological evidences and social choices are intertwined, structuring the unity of the group. People enhance pre-existing relationships and create new bonds through suspensions, becoming brothers and sisters in case of peers, or calling fathers those members at the top of the community’s hierarchy. Using Remotti’s theory of the anthropo-poiesis (Remotti Francesco, eds.2002. Forme di umanità. Milan: Mondadori), the present contribution highlights processes of intimacy creation through the use of the family rhetoric applied to an almost unexplored ethnographic case. This work is based on the project EXCEL - The Pursuit of Excellence. Biotechnologies, enhancement and body capital in Portugal , supported by the Foundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) under the grant agreement n.PTDC/SOC-ANT/30572/2017, and it’s coordinated at the Instituto de Ciências Sociais (ICS) - Universidade de Lisboa- by the PI Chiara Pussetti

Conference topic

Panel no. 84 - Imagine Kinship!

Preferred format

Oral



#233 A Paradigm Shift: The Formal Basis for Descriptive Versus Classificatory Terminologies

Dwight Read from US (dread@ss.ucla.edu) (University of California, Los Angeles)



Abstract

Abstract title

A Paradigm Shift: The Formal Basis for Descriptive Versus Classificatory Terminologies

Abstract text

The accepted, yet invalid, ontology for kin terms posits that they linguistically label genealogical categories determined by processes external to the terminology, such as marriage rules, conformity with forms of social groupings, and the like, where genealogical relations are determined through procreation. However, this ontology’s invalidity does not justify Schneider’s conclusion that kinship, as understood since the time of Morgan, does not exist. Schneider failed to take into account a paradigm shift positing that instead of kin terms being labels for categories of genealogical relations, genealogical relations and kin term relations are generated by different logics from the primary kinship relations connecting family members. Genealogical relations are generated through the logic of recursion by forming genealogical expressions such as “She is my mother’s father’s sister” from the primary kinship relations. Kin term relations are generated through the logic of kin term products that culture bearers use to compute kinship relations directly from kin terms without reference to genealogical relations. English speakers know that the kin term cousin culturally names the kinship relation linking speaker to interlocutor when speaker refers to the referent as aunt (uncle), and the referent refers to the interlocutor as daughter; that is, the kin term cousin is the (culturally understood) name for the kin term product of daughter with aunt (or uncle) for users of the English kinship terminology. This ontology for kin terms accounts for Morgan’s distinction between descriptive and classificatory terminologies according to whether sibling terms are culturally considered to be primary kinship relations.

Conference topic

Panel no. 53 - The Human Legacy of Kinship

Preferred format

Oral



#234 Reimagining Precarity: How to challenge Article33 and mobilize for identifying as transgender

Erzsébet Barát from HU (zsazsa@lit.u-szeged.hu) (University of Szeged, CEU)



Abstract

Abstract title

Reimagining Precarity: How to challenge Article33 and mobilize for identifying as transgender

Abstract text

I situate the formation of ‘national intimacies’ (Berlant 1998) in the context of ‘precarity capitalism’ (Azmanova 2020). The actual case involves the ‘intimation’ of hate-speech in the contemporary Hungarian political discourse in multiple intersecting narratives of ‘familiarity and comfort’ within the populist logic of fear. I argue that the Hungarian government’s monopolization of hate-speech may be the most visible move in the European Union, yet it is not exceptional. It is a necessary element of the state’s redistributive measures that institutionalize the accumulation of opportunities for the hand-picked few while distributing risks for the majority. I compare the transphobic law that recognizes ‘sex assigned at birth’ only introduced under the pretext of Covid-19 with the transphobic stance in Hungarian feminism. I claim that, as long as the major motivational resource for social mobilization is fear and desperation, it triggers most immediately ‘anger’. Even if this anger is legitimate and may move us to reframe the political elites’ agenda, it can easily be caught within the dominant logic of populist hate-speech and the desire for social justice through redistribution and inclusion. To imagine a future that effectively breaks out of this “economization” of the political (Brown 2015), we need to challenge the institutional(ized) root of the legitimacy deal between citizens and public authorities. That shift hinges on imagining a solidarity that escapes the imposition of taking charge of one’s own life and start calling for social safety, changing the logic of social reproduction lying in the center of precarity capitalism.

Conference topic

Panel no. 99 - National Intimacy Historical Present and Possibilities of New Imaginaries

Preferred format

Oral



#235 Dealing with Environments: Transitions in the Mobility and Materiality of Flexible Infrastructure

Miki Namba from JP (comikintern@gmail.com) (National Museum of Ethnology, Japan)



Abstract

Abstract title

Dealing with Environments: Transitions in the Mobility and Materiality of Flexible Infrastructure

Abstract text

Infrastructure breakdowns caused by the increasing extreme climate events have brought recognition that rigid structures are not a solution in the age of the Anthropocene. Rather, the transition to more resilient and flexible infrastructure is needed. The purpose of building flexible infrastructure is not to control but to manage unstable environments. This paper explores one (extreme) example of this –– an ephemeral bamboo bridge that crosses the Namtha River in northern Laos. On one hand, proponents of this flexible, ostensibly eco-friendly infrastructure argue and applaud that it is an important part of resilient-building in communities and that it exemplifies the long-standing human-environmental relationship. On the other hand, close attention reveals the fact that villagers see the bridge as a symbol of poverty and backwardness because it requires an extensive amount of work to rebuild and leaves the community without infrastructure for a long period. The monsoonal pattern of rainy and dry seasons that sets the annual rhythm of life in the village is also associated with subsistence pattern and the existence and absence of the bridge. The bridge’s material structure has also changed according to shifts in transport from walking to riding a motorbike. Focusing on how this bridge both enables and restricts the villagers’ mobility, this paper explores the interconnection between the materiality of the bridge and subsistent patterns, and villagers’ mobilities.

Conference topic

Panel no. 56 - Mobilities and Materialities: Body, Infrastructure, and Environment

Preferred format

Oral



#237 Local responses to the energy reform in the Metropolitan Area, of Poza Rica, Veracruz

Adriana Rodríguez San Martín from MX (adrianasanmartin__@hotmail.com) (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana)



Abstract

Abstract title

Local responses to the energy reform in the Metropolitan Area, of Poza Rica, Veracruz

Abstract text

Veracruz is a state with natural resources and a multicultural population that develops various productive activities. On the other hand, a certain tendency of the State to participate in its use for economic purposes has prevailed. This has been active in some moments of its development and economic growth and has been driven by businessmen of both public and private investment inside and outside the country, but it has been done to take advantage of these resources and develop the territory from a capitalist. In the north of the state there is an important economic enclave that, due to its changes and transformations, reveals the implementation of the economic and energy public policies that started in 1980. The region in which the economy and population of Poza Rica operates has not been as it has been since the middle of the 20th century. The territory that currently occupies the metropolitan area covers a more extensive territorial extension that integrates four municipalities: Cazones, Coatzintla, Tihuatlán and Papantla. With the passage of time, the federal government changed and opted for different economic models that favored certain economic sectors, putting the oil industry as a priority since 1950. Poza Rica, being a city emerged from this one activity would configure a dynamic close to this development for the other incipient urban settlements that are part of its metropolitan area. For this reason, this proposal seeks to show the local responses that this region has lived through the development model and its neoliberal policy.

Conference topic

Panel no. 11 - Responding Extractivist Reforms - Global Contexts and Local Insights on Neoliberal Extractive Policies

Preferred format

Oral



#239 Bleiburg and national intimacy in Croatia

Viktorija Kudra Beroš from HR (vixberos@gmail.com) (Institut za migracije i narodnosti)



Abstract

Abstract title

Bleiburg and national intimacy in Croatia

Abstract text

Bleiburg, a small town in Austria, is a controversial site of memory for many Croatians. The commemoration of what is now known as ‘Bleiburg tragedy’, which happens every year in May, is seen by some media as ”the biggest neo-Nazi meeting in Europe” and by others as “the biggest site of victims of Tito’s partisans”. The Bleiburg tragedy refers to the surrender of Croatian forces which collaborated with Germany during the Second World War, to partisans. The majority of them were killed without trial, including civilians who accompanied them. In communist Yugoslavia, Bleiburg was hardly mentioned, but the stories about Bleiburg massacre have stayed partly within anti-Yugoslav Croatian diaspora, transmitted orally from one generation to the next, becoming part of their identity, cultural trauma which was taken for granted. As Croatia become independent state, after the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, these stories entered the public sphere in Croatia, becoming a site of struggle, a site of unresolved past. Very often these narratives take highly emotional forms, generating a crisis by creating the two opposing camps. In this paper, inspired by Berlant’s work on national intimacies of the historical present, I examine the affective dimensions of identification which different stories about Bleiburg employ in contemporary Croatia. I ask: which fantasmic identifications are mobilized by these stories?; how they contaminate different fields such as education, heritage and tradition? and finally to which future imaginaries they aim?

Conference topic

Panel no. 99 - National Intimacy Historical Present and Possibilities of New Imaginaries

Preferred format

Oral



#240 Sedentarisation, decentralisation and access to resources: administrative villages in the north of Niger

Sarah Lunacek from SI (sarahlunacek@gmail.com) (Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana)



Abstract

Abstract title

Sedentarisation, decentralisation and access to resources: administrative villages in the north of Niger

Abstract text

Despite having a reputation of notorious rebels, in northern Niger Tuareg rebellion leaders and intellectuals seem to choose a path of integration into the state. Among demands of 1995 Peace agreements was decentralisation which is still getting implemented. Currently the basic local level of its implementation are administrative villages emerging intensively in last two years in the North. Here I will consider administrative villages primarily as continuation of sedentarisation process. Sedentaristion in Pastoral zone is gradual, combined with different kinds of mobilities, on customary territory, which was legally acknowledged only recently. While there are many interests in the territory (uranium and gold mines, ranches, gardens), administrative villages permit to legitimate the right of local community to manage the territory and resources (water, pastures and projects providing infrastructure). Since semi-sedentary hamlet’s transformation into a village is legitimised through elected local village chief, this is also an opportunity for different layers of political power struggles on local level (tribal chiefs, political party leaders). Along the processes notions of nomadism became ambiguous in different generations and social strata, in many cases turning nomadism to nostalgic form of livelihood, that needs to be adapted to aspirations of development in terms of diversification of activities as well as in access to schools, healthcare and mobile telephone networks. Meanwhile nomads who continue to live with herds more or less mobile livelihood, don't trust state representatives and their interests are rarely represented. We will consider these issues on particular cases.

Conference topic

Panel no. 10 - Lost in Representation: Changes and Paradoxes in the Nomads' Life

Preferred format

Oral



#242 Indicator Species, Cultural Symbol, Livelihood: Bombay Duck (Bombil) as Coastal Heritage in Mumbai, India

Devanathan Parthasarathy from IN (ben.dp@iitb.ac.in) (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) , Ishita Patil from IN (ben.dp@iitb.ac.in) (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) , Arun B Inamdar from IN (ben.dp@iitb.ac.in) (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) , Yogesh Agarwadkar from IN (ben.dp@iitb.ac.in) (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay)



Abstract

Abstract title

Indicator Species, Cultural Symbol, Livelihood: Bombay Duck (Bombil) as Coastal Heritage in Mumbai, India

Abstract text

Harpoon nehereus, known in the vernacular as Bombil and famous in Mumbai cuisine as Bombay duck is a species of lizard fish. It is a major catch for artisanal fishers in the Mumbai region of Western India. Eaten fresh and in a dried form, it is a major livelihood source for small-scale fishers, provides work and income to women, and is a significant contributor to food and nutrition security among the poor. It is of considerable cultural importance to the city’s cosmopolitan cuisine, and an indicator of marine biodiversity and environmental health of the coastal ecosystems. Studies have identified Bombil as one of the major species affected by coastal pollution in the sea, in creeks, and in rivulets in the Mumbai region. Urbanization, industrialization, improper sewage treatment and disposal, and oil exploration in Mumbai’s coast have drastically reduced the Bombay Duck catch. Using ethnographic research and participatory methods, this paper offers a gendered perspective on the decline of Bombil for the Koli community – traditional artisanal fishers in the Mumbai region, for Koli women, and the city’s seafood culture. Ecosystem destruction and loss need to be seen from the perspective of tangible and intangible heritage; doing so offers insights into the inter-related fates of artisanal fishers, environmental well-being, gender roles in fisheries based livelihoods, and indigenous knowledge. An analysis of popular, media, and community narratives around the Bombay Duck yields a sense of loss as well as resistance through strategies of remembering and sustenance of lived heritage around marine fish species.

Conference topic

Panel no. 95 - The Tides of Change: Living Off and With Heritage on the Coast

Preferred format

Oral



#243 Modes of space using in the North of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Nikolai Sergeevich Goncharov from RU (Nikola.gon4arov@yandex.ru) (Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnog.)



Abstract

Abstract title

Modes of space using in the North of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Abstract text

In this report, on the example of field ethnographic materials that I collected in the territory of Northern Yakutia, I will consider the features of the habitualization of the space of the river and tundra by the indigenous population of these places. Local residents cannot be called nomads in the strict sense of the word, as can be done relating to the Nenets or the Chukchi reindeer herders. However, the spatial practices implemented by the Russian, Even, Sakha representatives of these places, who are living in villages, are largely related to the parameter of temporary development of the territory. The space of the river is pointwise binded by social groups of various configurations in the summer, then the river leaves. Sometime after that winter fishing begins, characterizing by different strategies for space habitualization. The same traits go for hunting. The aspect of temporality is an integral and crucial feature of the economic habitualization of the territory for local communities. The report is devoted to the consideration of the modalities of options for space using in the North of Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) connected with different farming cycles and at different times of the year.

Conference topic

Panel no. 56 - Mobilities and Materialities: Body, Infrastructure, and Environment

Preferred format

Oral



#245 Anthropology for high-level professional caregivers

Toshiaki Inoue from JP (tosinoue@jiu.ac.jp) (Josai Internetional University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Anthropology for high-level professional caregivers

Abstract text

In this presentation, I would like to discuss how anthropology can contribute to the educational development of high-level professional caregivers. Especially after “Writing Culture“ was published, anthropologists reconsidered their relationship with the people in their research fields. They accumulated ample knowledge and lessons about cross cultural contact or political/social inequality between researchers and informants. This knowledge can be shared with different professional fields through interpersonal/cross cultural contact. I am an anthropologist and for many years I have also been teaching students who want to be professional social workers/care workers. I have found similarities between anthropologists’ experience in their fieldwork and caregivers’ experience in their social/care work fields. Although well intentioned, most caregivers in Japan are unaware of the issues involved in cross cultural situations, and so tend to adopt an ethnocentric attitude when caring for their patients. This attitude can affect the quality of patient support. Working in the field of welfare, I often find it necessary to point out to caregivers the impact their ethnocentric attitudes can have. This point is surprisingly well received by professionals who are concerned with improving the methods and quality of care. I have, therefore, begun teaching an anthropological/ethnographical approach to both students who want to be caregivers as well as professionals currently working in the field. Such an approach may well improve both the quality of patient care and reduce the possibility of burnout among caregivers This presentation reports on my educational practices and also examines their effectiveness.

Conference topic

Panel no. 60 - Anthropology as Education. Exploring Practices and Opportunities to Employ Anthropology in the Formation of the Citizens and the Professionals of the Future

Preferred format

Oral



#247 Gendered infrapolitics of a household debt: ethnographic insights from an industrial town in Serbia

Deana Jovanovic from NL (d.jovanovic@uu.nl) (Utrecht University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Gendered infrapolitics of a household debt: ethnographic insights from an industrial town in Serbia

Abstract text

The article explores debt relations and negotiation of responsibilities within a family based on the example of one family story in an industrial town in Serbia. The article zooms into the life of a woman who bears paradigmatic transgenerational consequences of transformation of the copper-processing industry (privatization) and the consequences of transformation of household in Serbia. By using ethnographic material and life history approach, I show the particularities of the “mathematical gymnastics” of the woman to cover the daily expenses of the household and other expenses and debts. In the paper, I specifically analyse how gender, kinship and disability play out in the infrapolitics of debt. The article problematises the idea of a family as a refuge in times of (economic) crisis in post-socialist Eastern Europe by showing how family appears as a burden and a site of oppression. In addition, the article shows how kinship ties are involved in making (patriarchal) hegemonic frameworks of the state increasingly present in the everyday life in times of the global rapid transformation of industrial relations.

Conference topic

Panel no. 20 - Contesting Household Debt: Politics, Infrapolitics, and the Political Economy of Debtor-Creditor Relations

Preferred format

Oral



#248 The role of volunteering in promoting the social integration of refugees

Mónica IBANEZ ANGULO from ES (miban@ubu.es) (Universidad de Burgos)



Abstract

Abstract title

The role of volunteering in promoting the social integration of refugees

Abstract text

Based on the results identified through the empirical research carried out as part of the European Project Jucivol (acronym of Junior Citizens Through Volunteering), in this paper I will analyse how and to what extent the promotion of volunteering activities among young migrants and refugees (18-30 years old) may constitute a way to foster social and entrepreneurial competences that, in turn, will facilitate their social inclusion. In order to carry out this analysis, I will first provide an overview of the main socio-demographic characteristics of these young migrants and refugees (countries of origin, age, year of arrival) in the five countries where the project has been implemented (Spain, France, Slovenia, Italy and Cyprus). Second, I will identify the main motivations and obstacles faced by these youngsters in order to become volunteers (e.g. lack of information, misconceptions). And third, I will analyse how participation of these youngsters in volunteering activities provides new means to achieve personal fulfilment and a sense of belonging to the society where they live. The main aim of the paper is twofold: on the one hand, this analysis will show the similarities and differences in the ways in which young migrants and refugees experience the challenge of integrating into a new sociocultural context; and, on the other hand, it will show how participation in volunteering activities constitutes an important asset for the well-being of these youngsters.

Conference topic

Panel no. 108 - Refuge Refugees and Forced Migration

Preferred format

Oral



#249 The dying gaze

Stefano Galeazzi from IT (stgaleazzi@gmail.com) (Independent researcher)



Abstract

Abstract title

The dying gaze

Abstract text

Over the centuries, Venice has intertwined its history with the development of specific techniques of adaptation and survival, from the great engineering works of diversion of watercourses to the small daily arts. Sandbar, islets and lidos give life to a fragile and extremely varied lagoon morphology where a complex and likewise fragile ecosystem can be found. This is a transformed land, the product of a complex cultural process. This means that the above mentioned anthropization has modified and continues to modify the hydro-geological balance of the Venetian Lagoon, impacting on its flora and fauna. In the light of above, the harvesting of moeche is an emblematic case. Moeche – which may constitute one of the most typical dishes in Venice – are the littoral crabs fished during the carapace molting, which normally happens twice a year, in spring and autumn. During the molt period, the crab needs specific environmental factors to change its carapace: a starry night, a certain water temperature, flat sea; a very complex picture where climate change, the policies for the protection of traditions and tourism influence the existence of this kind of fishing. The author of the documentary gives voice here to two actors: Luigi, an informal researcher of fishing practices in Venice, embodiment of an oral history telling an art that is dying; and Domenico, a fisherman of moeche, the youngest in the northern Lagoon, who at almost fifty years of age, he most of all, feels the weight of the end of such tradition.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#250 The Orderly Return of Othered Subjects - aggravation of German migration law from a power critical perspective

Charlotte Matondo Bechert from DE (charlotte.bechert@hu-berlin.de) (Humboldt-University Berlin)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Orderly Return of Othered Subjects - aggravation of German migration law from a power critical perspective

Abstract text

This research project focusses on discussing dynamics of othering and hierarchisation in recent German migration legislation. The aim is to investigate a 2019 amendment, that has gone almost unnoticed by the public eye, meeting little resistance in the parliament. This law commonly referred to as the „Law-of-Orderly-Return" (Geordnete-Rückkehr-Gesetz) has significantly worsened the conditions for immigrants, through a deprivation of former rights, facilitating a more hostile environment. Working on the basis of anthropological policy text analysis, analysis of speeches and half structured interviews, the amendment is examined on three methodological levels. The first level of analysis, deals with the substantial changes of content. The mixed qualitative methods have revealed the introduction of precautionary detention of migrants without court order, as well as the abolition of separation between deportation detention and criminal custody, as primary aggravations. These changes put certain migrants under general suspicion and terminate their basic assumption of innocence. The applicability of this deprivation of rights is measured along racialised and classist criteria. The research therefore identifies the creation of second-class citizens along biased hierarchies. Secondly, the language and wording of the policy text are being examined, revealing two central characteristics: euphemisms in wording, that hide brutal procedures and criminalising and dehumanising expressions for migrants, that again are utilised only for the above group. Thirdly these findings are interpreted in a historic continuity. From a postcolonial and power critical perspective the amendment therefore appears to be constructing racialised subjects, that work as antagonistic ‚Others’ and dividing deserving from undeserving migrants.

Conference topic

Panel no. 93 - European Makings of "Good" and "Bad" Refugees: Contestations of the Right to Have Rights

Preferred format

Oral



#251 The "ritual of Suspens": enabling the deployment of an Invulnerable French military unit by the creation of its own temporality.

Léa / Ruelle from FR (lea.ruellew@gmail.com) (Lyon 2 university)



Abstract

Abstract title

The "ritual of Suspens": enabling the deployment of an Invulnerable French military unit by the creation of its own temporality.

Abstract text

Currently doing a thesis in anthropology at the Lyon2 University on the interactions stakes between military doctor and military patient which developed an operational disability of psychological origin, I have already carried out a first ethnography with a French military unit about to be deployed in Africa. The purpose was to understand the military reality in order to then think about the issues at stake in care situations. During this first time of participant observation, a ceremony took place during which the joint battle group (a group of infantry, artillery, engineers, cavalry and a medical team constituting a so-called unsinkable unit during the projection) was officialized. The resulting reflections echo your panel "time, (im)mobility and vulnerability". Indeed, the collective past evoked, the artefacts handed in to distinguish behaviours dating back to previous projections and the speech giving meaning to the upcoming projection account for the transition from a state inscribed in the "normal" temporality to a state of Suspens (Augé, 2001) during which the men on departure "are no longer what they were and forget what they will become again" (Augé, 2001; p.77). This æstheticisation of the present prevents a post-projection organisation and detaches them from their individual past, making the elements of the joint group almost invulnerable, capable of movement towards an unknown perhaps hostile place. It is then in this perspective that I wish to propose a presentation about an ethnology of a temporary temporal unsubscription allowing a collective mobility by minimizing vulnerabilities through the ritual of Suspens.

Conference topic

Panel no. 35 - Time, (Im)Mobility and Vulnerability

Preferred format

Oral



#252 “Machete to the Machos!”: Affective Activism in the Forth Feminist Wave

Athanasia Francis from GB (athanasia.francis@liverpool.ac.uk) (University of Liverpool)



Abstract

Abstract title

“Machete to the Machos!”: Affective Activism in the Forth Feminist Wave

Abstract text

The last half of this decade has witnessed an unprecedented transnational feminist activist response to gender violence and to institutional failures to address it. Activists across countries and continents joined a collective call to protest the ideologies and power structures, and take matters into their own hands. March 2018 (8M) became the new feminist activist milestone after the global mobilisation of millions. The mobilisations in Spain and the autonomous regions, particularly the Basque Country, were the biggest in Europe and they continued, further fuelled by the judicial decision to allow the members of the gang ‘la Manada’ to walk free after the rape of a young woman in Pamplona during local festivities. Every city and town in the Basque Country and Spain hosted feminist activist demonstrations in response. This new feminist dynamic crossed local borders and aligned with international feminist movements (like the Ni Una Menos), and other social movements with intersected agendas (LGBTQΙ+, anti-fascist, anti-capitalist) from Chile to Greece. The notion of \'autodefensa\' (self-defence) became central within this affective activism, and manifested itself in various forms: from physical force and self-protection devices to the creation of safe community spaces; overall, it implied developing and implementing a collective strategy of resistance. If institutions guaranteeing women’s safety are likely to be the offenders, and if justice fails to recognise the impact of gender violence on victims’ lives, what is the alternative? For feminist activists struggling against failed systems and lack of accountability, the answer became assigning this task to themselves.

Conference topic

Panel no. 30 - Generational Affects: Anthropological Ways Toward Re-Enchanting Disenchantment

Preferred format

Oral



#253 Human capital policies

Andrés Dapuez from AR (afdapuez@gmail.com) (CONICET)



Abstract

Abstract title

Human capital policies

Abstract text

Based on an investigation that used surveys, observation, and interviews to model typical cases of cash transfer administrations, I present here one of such a case. A mother and her son, residing in a shanty town in Paraná, Argentina, reflects on human capital accumulation, the ultimate aim of the cash transfer program they receive. As recipients of Argentina's conditional cash transfer policy called "Universal Children Allowance for Social Protection", both mother and son analyze the policy's ultimate purpose—to accumulate human capital in the beneficiary through formal education. This bears out in their own decision making when the son abandons secondary school and enters into the informal labor market. Thus, different ways of making a living, and their material consequences, have objectified anticipations concerning human capital formation and the effectivity of such policy. The failure to accumulate human capital, appear in conversations in which the appropriation of economic concepts, such as "investment", "capital", "poverty", and others, are used to make sense of their live trajectories. In my conclusions, I remark that the apparent distinction between redistribution (Ferguson 2015) and the virtuality of policies for capital accumulations (Dapuez 2017). At these margins of a capitalistic state, idioms of de-economizing investment in human capital aim not only to administer poverty (Agudo Sanchíz 2015) but to bureaucratically create human capital simulacra. Ethnographic evidence shows that the cash transfer policy implementation reimages capital from the bottom-up.

Conference topic

Panel no. 21 - An Anthropology of Policy: Legacies and Future Challenges

Preferred format

Oral



#254 Intimate urban ecologies: cycling in Mexico City as path to environmental activism

Raul Gerardo Acosta Garcia from DE (raul.acosta@lmu.de) (Ludwig Maximilian University Munich)



Abstract

Abstract title

Intimate urban ecologies: cycling in Mexico City as path to environmental activism

Abstract text

Cycloactivists’ intimate bodily practice of cycling through Mexico City has re-shaped their political subjectivities to include urban environmentalism in their agendas. Riding a bicycle in the megalopolis allows them to identify key aspects of the city through their sensory perception, like the quality of air, the significance of green areas, or the management of water in built environments. Their resulting awareness of urban ecologies has therefore become a path to use their increasingly influential political voice to include the entangled layers of life and materiality in the city. Over the last ten years, the number of people using the bicycle to commute or for short trips within the city has increased exponentially. From an initial handful of cycloactivist groups, there are nowadays dozens of associations that promote cycling, changes in government policies to protect cyclists, and improvements in practices by motorists to better share roads and passageways. A common argument they use to advocate cycling is that it reduces the number of motorized vehicles on streets, thus also bringing down pollution and congestion. But by getting to know the city more intimately in daily commutes, weekly trips, or nocturnal explorations, cycloactivists have also identified certain urban ecosystems as more desirable than others. For this reason, some groups combine their promotion of cycling with reforestation campaigns, environmental education, or efforts to restore some of the rivers that have been paved over. Their intimate experiences of urban ecologies have thus paved the way towards the inclusion of environmental issues in their activism.

Conference topic

Panel no. 88 - Emerging Urban Political Subjectivities: Synergies, Tensions, Contradictions and Transformations in Pluralizing Cities

Preferred format

Oral



#255 Ethnographic notes about "Corridas de Tora" among Apinajé brazilian indians

Mariane da Silva Pisani from BR (mariane.pisani@uft.edu.br) (Universidade Federal do Tocatins)



Abstract

Abstract title

Ethnographic notes about "Corridas de Tora" among Apinajé brazilian indians

Abstract text

This oral presentation aims to introduce some ethnographic notes about "Corridas de Tora" among Apinajé brazilian indians. The Corridas de Tora are activities that involve running inside the forest in which the Apinajé indians - groups of men or women - carry big pieces of tree trunks that weigh up to 100kg (220lb). The etnographical notes were taken at two different moments. The first one, dated between August 31 and September 1, 2019, took place during a Tora Grande party, at Brejinho village located inside the Apinajé Indigenous Territory (northern Tocantins state). The second moment, dated October 30, 2019, took place at the Federal University of Tocantins (Campus of the city of Tocantinópolis) during the presentation of the project Grernhõxwỳnh Nywjê (Strengthening of singing among young people in Apinajé rituals). The second moment featured the presentation of the MẼNYWJÊ group of the Tekator Indigenous School, as well as the participation of the Apinajé community. By exhibiting these ethnographics notes we aim to: a) present the specificities of the Corridas de Tora among the Timbira people, especially among the Apinajé; b) establish a comparative parallel between the two moments, involving and evoking notions of bodies, corporeality, tradition, identity and sociability.

Conference topic

Panel no. 12 - Anthropology of Sports in its Coming of Age

Preferred format

Oral



#256 Covid, Trump, Brexit: The Anthropology of Policy in Troubled Times

Paul Stubbs from HR (pstubbs@eizg.hr) (The Institute of Economics, Zagreb) , Cris Shore from GB (c.shore@gold.ac.uk) (Goldsmiths, University of London)



Abstract

Abstract title

Covid, Trump, Brexit: The Anthropology of Policy in Troubled Times

Abstract text

When one of us invited an activist-scholar involved in anti-nationalist protest and new forms of direct democracy in Bosnia-Herzegovina to present at a workshop on 'Translating policy in the semi-periphery', his initial response was ‘whenever I hear the word “policy”, I want to reach for my gun’. Although reflecting the seeming irrelevance of 'policy' in times of 'angry politics' (Maskovsky and Bjork-James, 2020), we seek to re-imagine an anthropology of policy in troubled times, precisely because of its sensitivity to challenging false binaries between policy and the political, or between technocracy and authoritarianism. We explore this through an examination of three 'moments' representing profound changes or ruptures in social relations and forces: 'Brexit', the COVID-19 crisis, and the nature of the Donald Trump presidency. All question notions of clear distinctions between 'a state of exception' and 'states of normality' - whether 'old' or 'new' normal - and force us to address the boundaries of the sub-discipline of the anthropology of policy, appropriate methodologies, and the ethico-political problems and possibilities of a closer relationship with what has been termed 'insurgent ethnography' (Juris and Kasnabish, 2013). To what extent do we need to add the study of 'necropolicies' to that of 'necropolitics' (Mbembe, 2003), and how might anthropologies of policy adapt to changing technologies of governance and new forms of ‘technomoral’ politics (Bornestein and Sharma 2016)?

Conference topic

Panel no. 21 - An Anthropology of Policy: Legacies and Future Challenges

Preferred format

Oral



#258 Between the “revolutionaries” and the “sceptics”: Ethnographic research in emergent and polarized political moments.

Muzna Al-Masri from LB (muznamasri@gmail.com) (Ebla Research Collective)



Abstract

Abstract title

Between the “revolutionaries” and the “sceptics”: Ethnographic research in emergent and polarized political moments.

Abstract text

In this paper I examine the possibilities for and of research during periods of political turmoil. At the start of the protests in Lebanon in October 2020, political discussions were happening every day, filling the squares with enthusiasts young and old. While some political groups organized discussions to promote their views and political agenda, others opened up the space to listen and consult with a large body of demonstrators. At first attempt, in the excitement of the moment, I situated myself in these revolutionary squares, as a researcher and keeper of the record. Yet soon enough, I realized that an important conversation to capture is that of the sceptics, those choosing not to join the demonstrations, at the margin of the squares and outside of the media gaze. Based on my personal ethnographic research and commissioned conflict context analysis, and my vacillation between the “revolutionaries” and the “sceptics”, I explore methodological considerations, including collaborative and inclusive research, which can aid the researcher to reconcile the fervour of the political moment with the critical stance of a social researcher. I also attempt a reflection on the value of ethnographic research in emergent and polarized political moments.

Conference topic

Panel no. 91 - Knowing in the Field: Ethnography in Overbearing Conditions (sponsored by the Arab Council for the Social Sciences)

Preferred format

Oral



#259 Fragmented political action. Enacting multiplicity framed by coalitions among Rio de Janeiro’s migrant and non-migrant inhabitants

Tilmann Heil from BE (tilmann.heil@kuleuven.be) (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro / KU Leuven)



Abstract

Abstract title

Fragmented political action. Enacting multiplicity framed by coalitions among Rio de Janeiro’s migrant and non-migrant inhabitants

Abstract text

In Rio de Janeiro, migrant newcomers from West Africa and Southern Europe live proactive lives that challenge the hegemonic forms of subjection in the city, the country, and globally. Independent of whether newcomers plan to stay or move on, I ask how they become political in a city like Rio de Janeiro and how they relate to various existing initiatives that challenge the status quo to which urban dwellers are subjected. In Rio de Janeiro, Senegalese Muslims have performed collective prayers on the Slave Memorial of the Instituto Pretos Novos (Institute New Blacks) in Gamboa, the neighbourhood eaten up by Rio’s smart urban development of the Porto Maravilha (Marvellous Port) and the future home to Trump Tower. Young Spaniards have taken up the cause of the suffocating left, morning and fighting for justice, for example, for Marielle Franco, a black, lesbian councilwoman, born in one of Rio’s favelas and assassinated in 2018. Regardless of whether the newcomers frame their action as political or ethical, as both, or neither, I identify acts of opposing to, or acting outside of, racialization and racist discrimination, neoliberal accumulation and dispossession, or patriarchal gender and sexual hierarchies . Drawing together the punctual acts of subjectivation that challenge the status quo, I analyse the power and potentiality of such multiplicity. Relying on Lugones’ (2010) decolonial thought, I sound out a logic of coalition to frame the enactment of multiplicity, both of which are alternative to the hegemonic modern logic of dichotomies.

Conference topic

Panel no. 88 - Emerging Urban Political Subjectivities: Synergies, Tensions, Contradictions and Transformations in Pluralizing Cities

Preferred format

Oral



#260 Merroir in the Making: Heritage and Fetishism of Oystering in Eastern Hokkaido, Japan

Shingo Hamada from JP (hamada.shingo@osaka-shoin.ac.jp) (Osaka Shoin Women\'s University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Merroir in the Making: Heritage and Fetishism of Oystering in Eastern Hokkaido, Japan

Abstract text

Based on an ethnographic case study of human-oyster relations in Akkeshi, Japan, this paper examines the social construction of merroir (the taste of ocean) with reference to Japan’s provenance fetishism (sanchisūhai) produced by distancing and shading in contemporary food systems. Many consumers are concerned about the origin of food products, as they believe certain places produce better quality seafood than others. However, they purchase seafood without knowing where the origin of the product is geographically located. In the case of Akkeshi, few consumers probably know or are concerned that the place name Akkeshi derived from indigenous Ainu words and that Akkeshi was once the major Ainu settlement in the history of Hokkaido. How does taste come to exist ahistorical and sit within a specific place? This paper describes that heritage and place-making under the influence of the market-based economy silences the indigenous people and makes the concern about environmental change voiced by local fishers and oyster farmers unheard and invisible to consumers. The author aims to demonstrate that the concept and practice of merroir offer a good case study for thinking about how distancing and shading of the production of branded food create mythical values in consumer society.

Conference topic

Panel no. 95 - The Tides of Change: Living Off and With Heritage on the Coast

Preferred format

Oral



#261 Discussing Collaborative Actions with Amerindians in Ethnographic Collections in State Museums.

Renato Athias from BR (renato.athias@ufpe.br) (NEPE/UFPE)



Abstract

Abstract title

Discussing Collaborative Actions with Amerindians in Ethnographic Collections in State Museums.

Abstract text

In the past decade, several collaborative activities among Amerindian peoples have been carried out together with museums. This has been an important factor in the reinforcement of Amerindian identities in different national contexts. We have accompanied several experiences and different museological processes, in these last years, with the objects of shamanic use of the indigenous peoples of the Upper Rio Negro in different museums. And it has been powerless to note questions ranging from how these collections were carried out in different museums, as well as how these collections were documented. The contact of Amerindian representatives with ethnographic collections in museums has provoked in the museums themselves an action to discuss the forms of documentation and investigation of these ancient collections and ethnographic collections. Therefore, this presentation aims to present anthropological issues related to the ethnographic collections and museological archives about the Amerindians in Museums and, above all, to problematize the collaborative actions with the representatives of the indigenous peoples in Brazil regarding the indigenous objects and artifacts in these museums. It seeks to emphasize the role of the Amerindians in these museological processes.

Conference topic

Panel no. 103 - Collaborative Actions and Ethnographic Museums

Preferred format

Oral



#262 Healthy eating and Instagram : emerging socialities in Bogota, Colombia

Nathan Lebras from FR (nathan.pecout@gmail.com) (Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3)



Abstract

Abstract title

Healthy eating and Instagram : emerging socialities in Bogota, Colombia

Abstract text

The questioning of conventional food norms and the prevalence of identity construction in modern societies has raised the eventuality of a crescent individualization of food behaviours (Abramson, 2014). In Bogota, people who engage in the various paths of healthy eating seek to establish their own norms and to find a balance between self-care and commensality. This healthy eating community draws on social media and especially on Instagram to build itself between virtuality and physicality : Instagram serves as a platform to share images and information and to bring people together around the shared interest for healthy eating. Within this imagined community, communication through Instagram also allows people to organize the various moments of copresence of the members : food festivals, cooking classes, workshops, talks and conferences, finding new restaurants to go out to… This communication strategy is also used by restaurant owners – whose habitus are closely related to their customers’ – as the main advertisement tool in which these customers participate actively. Digital social media are thus used to build reconfigured forms of sociality around food, tempering the idea of a rampant individualization in a food consumption mode like healthy eating. Through flows of images, information and persons, the transnationalized urban members of the community draw a dense web of social relationships around specific neighborhoods – like the one of El Chicó around the hotspot of the Parque de la 93 – as well as connections to global healthy eating trends and communities, way beyond the city limits.

Conference topic

Panel no. 04 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#263 Indigenous Knowledge for Fishing and Adapting for Material Change: Case of Sama-Bajau People in Indonesia

Makibi Nakano from JP (maknaknet1@me.com) (Kyoto University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Indigenous Knowledge for Fishing and Adapting for Material Change: Case of Sama-Bajau People in Indonesia

Abstract text

The aim of this research is to explore the ways in which ecological conditions affect Sama-Bajau fishermen’s mobility and their adaptions to the conditions with indigenous knowledge, such as seasonal changes of winds, lunar period and tide; as well as the ways in which material changes occurred since modernization impacted these practices. Sama-Bajau people who were well known as ‘sea nomads’ or ‘sea gypsy’ because of their lifestyles on the boat have kept moving and colleting maritime resources. Today, they have already move to the dwelling houses on the sea or the land, and fishing in coastal area or the outer sea. Sama-Bajau people who live in Banggai islands, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, usually fished on the outer sea with sailing boat before modernization. Therefore, their fishing practice was strongly affected and limited by ecological cognitions. For example, stormy north winds of monsoon had limited their movement to the fishing spot in the north. It was essential to understand the classification of seasonal changes, lunar period and tide. In order to adapt these ecological conditions, they have adjusted fishing route and time. However, after the introduction of materials including outboard motor, bomb, and so on, their route, time, season of fishing was significantly changed. Based on the fieldwork, this research discusses about relationship between mobility, material and ecology on fishing.

Conference topic

Panel no. 56 - Mobilities and Materialities: Body, Infrastructure, and Environment

Preferred format

Oral



#264 Disengaging Anthropology: reflections on museological collaboration through the analysis of two experiences with indigenous people of Brazil.

Anna Bottesi from IT (anna.bottesi@edu.unito.it) (University of Turin)



Abstract

Abstract title

Disengaging Anthropology: reflections on museological collaboration through the analysis of two experiences with indigenous people of Brazil.

Abstract text

The process of rethinking of ethnographic museums of the last 50 years, gave birth to several collaboration projects that, through the opening of the museum structure and the establishment of new relationships with source communities, are aiming at giving marginalized groups the chance to make their voice heard. Supposed to be based on a participative approach that rebalances power relationships in terms of knowledge production and representation, these initiatives are very difficult to carry on and not always successful. As a matter of fact, questioning the historical colonial process and the hegemonic categories it produced frequently ends up falling into neocolonial traps. I will present here two different case studies that can help us understand some of the problems and limits that can affect the trend of the negotiation process. The first one refers to a collaborative initiative undertaken in 2009 by the Anthropological Museum of Florence, on a collection assembled in 1996 in a Yanomami indigenous community (State of Roraima, Brazil); the second one, on a research made in 2018 on the local museum of a Tabajara and Tapuio indigenous community living in the State of Piauí, Brazil. The analysis of these experiences can give us some insights about the process of self-representation, and its restitution through the use of museological instruments, specifically focusing on the relationships among the parts involved and the role of the anthropologist as a mediator between cultural and political contexts.

Conference topic

Panel no. 103 - Collaborative Actions and Ethnographic Museums

Preferred format

Oral



#265 The formation of the Croatian community and Russian Ethnographic Expedition in South America at the beginning of the 20th century

Elena S. Soboleva from RU (essoboleva@yahoo.com) (• Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethno)



Abstract

Abstract title

The formation of the Croatian community and Russian Ethnographic Expedition in South America at the beginning of the 20th century

Abstract text

The Croatian community significantly supported the Second Russian Expedition to South America in 1914-1915. An Argentine businessman of Croatian descent, Nicolás Mihanovich, in 1914 allowed discounts on the passage of the expedition on his steamboats from Buenos Aires to Corumbá (Brazil). Sergey V. Geiman collected ethnographic exhibits in Patagonia. He was warmly received at the Austrian Dalmatian colony around the coast. This first and largest colony of South Slavs in Magallanes had about 4,000 members. In Punta Arenas they published a newspaper, organized a Croatian Sport Club «Sokol», libraries, schools, orchestra, lecture and concert halls. Geiman stayed in Punta Arenas on March 30 – April 8 and April 15-24, 1915. More than 300 people attended his lecture on April 18, 1915 in Hrvatski Dom (Centro Croato). The text was published in newspapers «Domovina» and «El Magallanes». The President of the Colony made a farewell banquet for him in a French hotel. Journalist Lucas Bonačić Dorić supported the preservation of the Croatian culture and defended the rights of emigrants in Chile. He sent Geiman his article «Los Croatos en Magallanes» from the «Domovina» and a description of the Croatian colony. Under the Habsburgs the Slavic peoples sought forms of union, representation and organization. With the outbreak of World War I Hrvatski Dom started bazaars in favor of the Red Cross, collecting money for Serbian and Montenegro orphans. Young people wore Croatian costumes on festive occasions. Geiman witnessed how Croatian immigrants in Chile integrated into national society and culture without losing their identity.

Conference topic

Panel no. 99 - National Intimacy Historical Present and Possibilities of New Imaginaries

Preferred format

Oral



#266 Invisibility and integration: Two futures of the world’s oldest country

Jason Danely from GB (jdanely@brookes.ac.uk) (Oxford Brookes University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Invisibility and integration: Two futures of the world’s oldest country

Abstract text

Margaret Mead (1969) argued that rapid technological and social change has shifted values away from cultural traditions embodied in the experiences of older generations, towards more future-oriented younger generations. Societies that have experienced this shift, however, tend to also be the same societies that are aging most rapidly. The social devaluation of old age coupled with the growing proportion of older people in the population poses a serious challenge to societies around the world and should prompt anthropologists to reflect, as Mead did, on changing configurations of the life course. This paper draws on fieldwork conducted in Japan between 2013-2020. I argue that the change in generational size and value creates a ‘contentious politics of everyday life’ that excludes, isolates, and criminalizes older people. However, I also describe how some Japanese people are resisting these conditions and creating spaces of belonging (ibasho) that afford new possibilities for dwelling and mutual coexistence (within and between generations) to take form on a local level. Japan's future, and that of all aging countries, will hinge on these two futures and the capacity to reconfigure the life course accordingly.

Conference topic

Panel no. 63 - Coming of (Old) Age on Earth: Imagining Our Aging Future

Preferred format

Oral



#267 The ghost of the naked indian: indigenous colonial representations and the interaction between penal system and indigenous persons in Brazil

Rodrigo Arthuso Arantes Faria from BR (rodrix87@hotmail.com) (Universidade de Brasilia / University of Brasilia)



Abstract

Abstract title

The ghost of the naked indian: indigenous colonial representations and the interaction between penal system and indigenous persons in Brazil

Abstract text

The first description of the Amerindian peoples found in the territory that today is Brazil dates from May 1st, 1500. Pero Vaz de Caminha, notary of the Portuguese armada, says, in a letter addressed to King Dom Manuel, that "they were brown, all naked, with nothing to cover their shame" and that "they held bows with their arrows in their hands". This image was later taken up in the 19th century by the positivist founders of the Republic in order to justify their forced inclusion into the wheel of civilizational progress that they were proposing, and more than five centuries later, remains dominant in the national imaginary of 21st century Brazil. This paper, based on ethnographic material collected among agents of the penal system and indigenous persons in the penal system in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, reflects on the prevalence of an essentialist colonial image over indigenous peoples, and its use as an index of indianity for indigenous persons considered “acculturated”. In fact, indigenous persons who appropriate signs and uses of non-indigenous society are usually considered to be integrated to the national communion, an euphemistic way of saying that they are no longer considered real indians, and consequently, no longer subjects of indigenous rights. Thus, this demand for a “pre-colonial authenticity” (Povinelli 1998), instead of romantic and harmless nostalgia, subverts the axiomatic of the multi-ethnic constitutional State and operates the symbolic violence of ethnic non-recognition and the violation of guaranteed rights to indigenous people in criminal proceedings.

Conference topic

Panel no. 81 - Essentialism in Deprecatory Expressions of the Other: Comparing Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Examples with Those of the Early 21st Century

Preferred format

Oral



#269 Emerging COVID-19 Migration Narratives and Gendered Economic Exclusion in Delhi, India

Heather OLeary from US (olear079@umn.edu) (University of South Florida)



Abstract

Abstract title

Emerging COVID-19 Migration Narratives and Gendered Economic Exclusion in Delhi, India

Abstract text

The COVID-19 global pandemic containment responses have emphasized urbanites’ fractured acceptance of migrant and rural-origin workers upon whose backs the city is built. In 2019 alone, India contributed the 15% of the 145 country total of conflict and disaster migrants worldwide. Many fled to megacities like Delhi, joining an already precarious informal workforce. COVID-19 has ravaged the reserves of economic resilience for India’s 140 million internal migrants. This has been even more devastating for female migrants, whose economic resilience is regularly diminished by structural inequities. Typical migration analyses overlook the gendered aspects of forced displacement. Specific to COVID-19, the large majority of female domestic workers are being barred from homes in an unprecedented collapse of the industry. At the same time, unpaid domestic labor is increasing in their own homes as care work and domestic vigilance are required to combat the pandemic. Women are being pushed from the city with violent and virulent threats, however, should they survive their out-migration, they are facing stigma and loss of autonomy. This research documents women’s narratives about COVID-19 migration patterns through (n)ethnographic fieldwork. It tracks the emerging patterns of migration mitigation discourse and practices among Delhi’s female in-migrants. Migrants like those in Delhi, India demonstrate the ways in which different approaches to socio-economic resilience can lead to more stable urban populations in the face of pandemic or other disasters.

Conference topic

Panel no. 22 - Legacies of Forced Migrations: The Politics of Exclusions and Inclusions

Preferred format

Oral



#271 Imagining/dis-imagining the future of my home: Uncertainty in Finnish older adults’ ‘housing trajectories’

Erika Takahashi from JP (eritak@gmail.com) (Chiba University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Imagining/dis-imagining the future of my home: Uncertainty in Finnish older adults’ ‘housing trajectories’

Abstract text

In many parts of the world, housing is seen as a symbol of generational continuity. Homes are reciprocal means for older adults to pass on to their children, thus ensuring support and care from the children in return. In other words, houses are a means of shaping the future for older adults. However, in Finland, older adults often sell their old homes and buy new ones after retiring, because of the amount of maintenance required in older homes. Still, the relocation strategies of older adults take various routes, depending on their physical and economic condition. If houses are powerful chess pieces for working out strategies for retired life, instead of the cornerstone of stable living, how unpredictable does this render their future? Consequently, how does this assumed unpredictability affect the next generations? This paper examines the material aspects of dwellings and connects them to the social structure by describing the ‘housing trajectories’ of older adults in a suburban municipality in southwestern Finland. It is the entanglement of the geographical location, the condition of the buildings, trends in the real estate market, the owners' intergenerational relationships and the public provision of care services that determine their housing strategies. This ethnographic account reveals the individualist aspect of housing that is constructed around the Nordic care system and generates uncertainty in shaping the future of older adults, subsequent generations and Finnish society in general.

Conference topic

Panel no. 63 - Coming of (Old) Age on Earth: Imagining Our Aging Future

Preferred format

Oral



#272          Reclaiming the Mountain Regions: Conflict between the Indigenous and the Capitalist Perspectives

Annapurna D Pandey from US (adpandey@ucsc.edu) (UCSC)



Abstract

Abstract title

         Reclaiming the Mountain Regions: Conflict between the Indigenous and the Capitalist Perspectives

Abstract text

Indigenous people across the cultures view Mountains as sacred – a living, thinking and acting being. Mountains are currently under pressure being commodified and objectified from the dramatic expansion of large-scale extraction activities and mindless development ventures taken up by states and profit-oriented companies. I will focus on the sacred logic by various environmental justice movements taken up by the indigenous people in various mountainous regions. When mountains are themselves viewed as powerful and sacred actors in efforts residents organize to protect their regions from irrevocable destruction through mining activities, we see more effective and successful organizing than when mountains are viewed through ambivalent logics and, especially, seen as inert and possible for humans to own rather than as alive and having self-determination. The examples I draw on for this comparison are from my home region, respectively, in Odisha, India, and the United States where I have lived for more than thirty years now. I base my conclusion about the importance of mountains as sacred partners in environmental justice organizing efforts on nearly three decades of ethnographic research, listening to residents of southeastern Odisha and my own comparative discussions about what I have learned from those who have shared their perspectives and experiences with me.

Conference topic

Panel no. 11 - Responding Extractivist Reforms - Global Contexts and Local Insights on Neoliberal Extractive Policies

Preferred format

Oral



#274 The Hupd’äh Enchanted Words of the Amazon - Masters of knowledge, narrated by Renato Athias

Mina Rad from FR (eventminarad@gmail.com) (World Cultural Diversity productions)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Hupd’äh Enchanted Words of the Amazon - Masters of knowledge, narrated by Renato Athias

Abstract text

"Humanity is nature" is what the Hupd’äh think. The cosmology of this people, one of 210 Amerindiens ethnic groups in Brazil, is linked to the universe. This film was made from ethnographic archives, collected by Renato Athias, Brazilian athropologist, on the basis of his main collaborators, the masters of knowledge, Bihit, Mehtiw and Casimiro, clan leaders of the Hupd'äh. This film hope to encourage us for debating the relationships between humans and non-humans.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#275 Temporal Encounters: Crisis, Migration and Futures in Iceland

Marek Pawlak from PL (marek.pawlak@uj.edu.pl) (Jagiellonian University in Cracow)



Abstract

Abstract title

Temporal Encounters: Crisis, Migration and Futures in Iceland

Abstract text

In Iceland, the economic crisis is once again looming large on the horizon. Although it resides in the realm of imagined and possible, its locally contextualized presentiments already affect social understandings and actions. The current matters, lived experiences and different social practices charge the atmosphere and unfold concurrent temporalities. From economic issues and political turbulences to tangible and intangible aspects of everyday life, they all seem to remind of not only ‘what has happened’ in the past, but also ‘what is about to happen’ in the near future. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Iceland, the paper explores crisis-induced lived experiences of Polish migrants and Icelanders, and problematises the emerging sense of social alertness, anticipation and future orientations. It unpacks the relationship between the past, present and future, and offers insights into the lived affective and temporal ways of being in the world. In doing so, the paper moves beyond the static category of difference (migrants vs. host society) and focuses on relational similarities of temporal encounters. It thus shows that imagined and negotiated crisis futures illuminate existing imaginaries, cultural meanings and social practices, which often cross-cut and override national and ethnic belongings. Actual or imagined, the looming crisis unfolds rather common concerns, predicaments and anxieties among migrants and host societies, as well as their aspirations and hopes, which are still in a state of becoming.

Conference topic

Panel no. 71 - Encounters Across Difference: Moving Beyond Dark Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#276 Timeless struggle over the feminist paradigm: Representing dynamics of gender identity construction then and now.

Ana Vivoda from HR (ana.vivoda@gmail.com) (University of Zadar) , Katarzyna Kosmala from GB (katarzyna.kosmala@uws.ac.uk) (University of the West of Scotland)



Abstract

Abstract title

Timeless struggle over the feminist paradigm: Representing dynamics of gender identity construction then and now.

Abstract text

A difficulty to understanding feminism is connected to the fact that the ideology informing feminist framings has shifted over time, creating apparently distinctive waves. If we acknowledge the preceding waves of feminism are built from earlier women’s accomplishments and activism-inspired action, we can better understand feminist discourse today. This paper illustrates dynamics of weaveless feminism through art representation, reflecting on the persistence of feminism, and attending to different ways women are coping with socio-economic challenges. We draw on uses of autobiography in creative practice, exploring an array of diverse subjective positions represented through portraiture. Specifically, we will examine representation of gender performance through recognition, identification or alteration of the family bonds-based constructions. We explore in what ways the first person accounts can reveal different perceptions concerning a discourse of womanhood across generations as well as attempts at modifications of these constructions. The uses of portraiture will be critically examined in the installation Relations of reciprocity (2020), the artist book series Faces (2013) and Frontiers (2017). The works represent the alternative feminist positions, formed through reciprocity, relationality, constructed and reconstructed overtime in multi-layered and intertwining contexts. We will analyze ways in which artistic representation attempts to tap into inter-generational conflict, confronting different feminist realities over time. Articulation of wavelessness in these artworks evidences that there is no single feminist moment with a clearly defined political agenda that can be applied to analyze them. Instead, we argue that feminist discourse needs to be articulated through broader critical frameworks and over time.

Conference topic

Panel no. 06 - Feminist-inspired Activist Imaginaries for Making Change: Social Making Legacies and Methodological Framings

Preferred format

Oral



#278 Wild Honey: Caring for bees in a divided land

Lisa Palmer from AU (lrpalmer@unimelb.edu.au) (University of Melbourne)



Abstract

Abstract title

Wild Honey: Caring for bees in a divided land

Abstract text

For more than a century, the island of Timor has been divided by a colonial border. This border has displaced and separated the people of Lookeu, dividing their land, water and history. Timor’s migratory wild honey bees challenge this division. Their migrations are essential to the agricultural and spiritual wellbeing of the people and places who depend upon them. In community honey harvest rituals, queen bees are courted in ceremony by men who climb high into the canopy to sing nocturnal forest love songs. These songs express gratitude to the bees, enticing and imploring them to give up their sweetness and maintain their seasonal visits. This film is the outcome of a long-term collaboration between researchers Balthasar Kehi and Lisa Palmer and the people of Balthasar’s homeland of Lookeu. It portrays a border community who, despite changing farming practices and increasing commodification, are determined to maintain the bees’ movement across the region and preserve their shared identity.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#280 Here's to future days: Climate change and hydropower plants construction in Albania

Ani Bajrami from AL (ani.bajrami@fshn.edu.al) (University of Tirana)



Abstract

Abstract title

Here's to future days: Climate change and hydropower plants construction in Albania

Abstract text

The total number of hydropower plants (HPP) approved by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy of Albania has reached 714 . For years, environmental activists, citizens and researchers have rise their voices, concerned with government environmental policies. Unfortunately, government’s hydropower approved projects do not take in consideration studies regarding climate changes in Albania. The effect of warmer temperatures on evaporation and the decline in precipitation will make the Western Balkans drier with Albania expecting more frequent droughts as one of the most vulnerable countries in the region. It is estimated that summer rainfalls will decline by about 10% by 2020 and 20% by 2050. Despite the shortage of precipitation in near future, hydropower massive constructions are taking place that affects water resources management and biodiversity. For example, Vjosa river is one of Europe’s last living wild river and represent large river systems hosting all type of ecosystems. The loss of Vjosa biodiversity and other environmental issues concerned more than 60 scientists from Albania, Austria and Germany. Though serious efforts by researchers, NGO’s and environmental activists have been made to oppose hydropower projects, small incremental policy solutions by the government are not enough. The enforcement of the rule of law and responsible environmental assessments must be done in order to strengthen the sustainable use of natural resources and biodiversity. In addition, there remains a great challenge ahead for Albanian government to fully address and mitigate climate change consequences.

Conference topic

Panel no. 02 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#281 Did the ratio of male-to-female live births reflect social and economic inequalities? The pilot study from the Poznań province, 1875–1913

Agnieszka Sobkowiak from PL (agnieszka.sobkowiak@amu.edu.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań) , Grażyna Liczbińska from PL (grazyna@amu.edu.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań)



Abstract

Abstract title

Did the ratio of male-to-female live births reflect social and economic inequalities? The pilot study from the Poznań province, 1875–1913

Abstract text

The first goal of this study was to verify the usefulness of the ratio of male-to-female live births (secondary sex ratio; SSR) as an indicator of environmental stress in historical populations, however, keeping in mind the potential imperfections in recording birth figures. The second aim was to check whether and to what extent the SSR values may have reflected social and economic inequalities in the Poznań province in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The study did not confirm any significant changes in the values of secondary sex ratio in 1875–1913, neither in terms of significant fluctuations according to the month and season of birth, and historical period, nor according to maternal socio-economic status (SES) measured by the size of her place of residence and marital status. However, the results showed a statistically significant interaction of maternal place of residence and marital status in influencing SSR. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that maternal marital status was the strongest factor affecting SSR among all characteristics under study. The SSR could have reflected to some extent environmental stress, operating through social and economic inequalities in the form of accepted/ non-accepted morals and customs, which translated into different treatment of unmarried/ married mothers in rural and urban environments.

Conference topic

Panel no. 14 - Environmental Stress Impact on Human Biology, Health Status and Demography

Preferred format

Oral



#282 La bella polenta: the most emblematic of Italian colonial foods

Luiza Giordani from BR (luizagiordani@gmail.com) (UFRGS) , Maria Eunice Maciel from BR (luizagiordani@gmail.com) (UFRGS)



Abstract

Abstract title

La bella polenta: the most emblematic of Italian colonial foods

Abstract text

From ethnography carried out with immigrants and descendants of Italian immigrants, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between March and November 2019, I was able to identify on the polenta an emblematic figure, full of importance and meaning. In general, polenta is recognized as a dish from northern Italy, and because the first immigrants who colonized the state of Rio Grande do Sul were from this part of Italy, the frequency of polenta in the Italian colonial food is quite remarkable in the most different meals. However, polenta also appears in the southern Italian dish. The circumstances of its journey to the table are very similar, which made the dish a mandatory presence for immigrants from all regions of Italy. Polenta has become an emblem, which has gone from trash to luxury, which has been reframed over the decades and which today appears in different guises, without losing its essential essence. Polenta is also not just an essential dish, but it moves emotions and feelings, passes through memory and traces its path to the past. It works as a bridge between what is gone with the ancestors and what is brought to the next generations. It is a strong root full of meanings, identities, belonging. When, arriving in Italy, you can eat absolutely anything, and you choose polenta as the preferred food, it demonstrates the strength and importance that it has in the individual's memory and life.

Conference topic

Panel no. 23 - Mediterranean Foodscapes: (New) Models of Sociability and Sustainability

Preferred format

Oral



#283 Gender Regimes in Juvenile Criminal Justice and dangerous youth in necropolitics times

Janaina de Souza Bujes from BR (jsbujes@gmail.com) (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)



Abstract

Abstract title

Gender Regimes in Juvenile Criminal Justice and dangerous youth in necropolitics times

Abstract text

In this study I analyse the formation of a notion of “dangerous youth” as well as the rationality of the Juvenile Penal Justice system, which combined with other state practices, can be understood as a necropolitics of public security. I present how the narratives interact and co-produce gender norms in certain everyday state practices. I argue that youth is a heterogeneous historical and social experience. In that sense, the analysis of the Juvenile Penal Justice data could be helpful for the understanding of the state technopolitics logic, their practices of selection and capture of different bodies in the punitive dynamics of the confinement. This study is based on official national data from the Juvenile Penal Justice system. It is possible to observe that the increase on the criminalization of youths follows the same reasoning of the adults criminal justice system. The state technopolitics that is co-produced in the everyday life of confinement generate different influences on girls and boys. It affects not only the individual existence of these young people, as well as the collective experience of this part of the population. From the interactions between social, legal and practical dynamics, we see the overpass of specific social markers of difference and the boundaries between bare life and social life being determined, in which state practices are situated from a necropolitical perspective of public security.

Conference topic

Panel no. 09 - Youth, Crime and Marginality in Europe and Beyond

Preferred format

Oral



#284 Pastoralist Youth in towns and cities: mobility patterns in times of crisis of governance in Burkina Faso

Sergio Magnani from FR (semagnani@gmail.com) (Indipendent Researcher) , Charline Rangé from FR (charline.range@gmail.com) (Researcher at GRET) , Véronique Ancey from FR (Veronique.Ancey@fao.org) (Researcher at FAO - CIRAD)



Abstract

Abstract title

Pastoralist Youth in towns and cities: mobility patterns in times of crisis of governance in Burkina Faso

Abstract text

In Burkina Faso, as in other Sahelian countries, the “idleness” of pastoralist youth along with climate change and scarcity of natural resources is cited by policymakers as a major driver of migration and violence. In order to move beyond these normative views, we have recently conducted a study in Burkina Faso focusing on the migratory networks of young pastoralists and the perceptions of a set of institutional actors. While “conflict-oriented” narratives ignore the structural changes occurring in pastoral societies, our results highlight a set of multidimensional and long-term processes excluding pastoralists from land access and participation in politics. Access to adult status is often no longer granted solely by the transfer of cattle rights. Youth mobility patterns reveal that pastoral families need both pastoral mobility and territorial anchoring. Urban dwellers acting as brokers could reinforce access to pastoral resources, basic services and citizenship rights. This could help to renew the relationships with the state and its representatives in rural areas as a possible solution to discrimination against and mistreatment of pastoralists. We propose to discuss the relations between institutional discourses on conflicts, migration and climate change – and the projects and policies that embody them – and the dynamics of social change in pastoral societies in a context of “crisis governance”. Our analysis underlines the urgency of deconstructing the global narratives underpinning a security context which jeopardizes young people’s mobility and compromises both their social integration, and the chances of achieving a political solution to the spread of armed insurgencies.

Conference topic

Panel no. 10 - Lost in Representation: Changes and Paradoxes in the Nomads' Life

Preferred format

Oral



#285 Who is she?

niga sayyed from PL (nigamail@gmail.com) (The Eugeniusz Geppert Academy of Fine Arts, Wroc)



Abstract

Abstract title

Who is she?

Abstract text

Across the globe, women are making a name for themselves in every possible domain. While in some other parts of the world, they even struggle for their identity. During one of my photography sessions in a local graveyard of Lahore, Pakistan, I noticed that some of the headstones of females graves don’t carry their names. Instead, they were identified by their relations with the male family elders. That’s when I realised that even though she devotes her entire life loving and caring for others, her struggle of finding her own identity continues even after her death. My project includes ten photographs with four screen prints. In these photographs I am using a green fabric which I took originally from one of the graves in Pakistan and I screen printed the Urdu words “Akhri Aram Gah” which means the last resting place. In South Asia, a green cloth (usually known as ‘Chadar’) is placed on the grave of a pious Muslim man out of respect. The purpose of photographing this screen printed green cloth over a female body was to capture different female postures. These postures consist of the life span of a woman and represent femininity as a whole. I am reclaiming that space and giving women the recognition they deserve for their selfless acts. I am initiating a conversation to eradicate this social taboo where we even cover the graves of the saints with a holy green cloth, but fail to write even her name on the headstone.

Conference topic

Panel no. 06 - Feminist-inspired Activist Imaginaries for Making Change: Social Making Legacies and Methodological Framings

Preferred format

Oral



#286 Who is old? Studying ageism in an Israeli gym

Esther Hertzog from IL (bental4@gmail.com) (Zefat Academic College)



Abstract

Abstract title

Who is old? Studying ageism in an Israeli gym

Abstract text

Old-age and ageism in the context of a gym in Israel will be at the focus of my presentation. It will question the concept of `old-age` as having self-evident existence. Ageism is perceived as contempt, patronizing and fear towards older people, based on age as determining social image, identity and status. The gym`s framework serves as a convenient sphere for examining the phenomenon of ageism because of the physical, bodily characteristics that are prominent in this social surrounding. The analysis suggests that `old-age` is perceived as threatening but also as challenging. Fitness activity and the persistence involved in it are perceived by the trainers and trainees, of all ages, as signaling the distancing from physical fragility (and end of life) but also as a way of overcoming it. The paper is based on the presenter's ethnographic study in a gym in a suburban region. The study was carried out by participant observations and conversations with female trainees and trainers along one year at the gym. The findings revealed that the trainers` and trainees` attitude toward older trainees shifts from consideration and encouragement to contempt and disregard. However, a `regular` attitude toward the older trainees, similar to the one toward other trainees, was also noticed. Noteworthy differences were found, depending on the situations, on the spaces of training and times of activity, the trainers, the trainees, the kind of activity, ownership, etc.

Conference topic

Panel no. 63 - Coming of (Old) Age on Earth: Imagining Our Aging Future

Preferred format

Oral



#287 Can the Peruvian mummies speak? Challenges and opportunities in ancient DNA analyses

Samanti Kulatilake from CA (skulatilake@mtroyal.ca) (Mount Royal University) , Patrick Carmichael from CA (pcarmichael@mtroyal.ca) (Mount Royal University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Can the Peruvian mummies speak? Challenges and opportunities in ancient DNA analyses

Abstract text

The Nasca people of the southern coast of Peru (A.D. 100-600) are famous for their stunning polychrome pottery and giant ground drawings - Nazca Lines - carved into the desert landscape. Nasca skeletal biology and genetics however, have received relatively little attention in the literature. Through stable isotope analysis, the Nasca dietary pattern is assessed as agrarian-based, where marine resources played a relatively minor role (Carmichael et al. 2014). This study was designed to enhance the knowledge about the genetics of the Nasca from the Early Intermediate Period of coastal Peru, by studying ancient DNA (aDNA) obtained from several mummies buried at the great ceremonial site of Cahuachi and two adjacent sites (Soisongo and Majoro Chico). Paleogenomic studies on ancient South Americans have addressed broad questions of population dynamics, demographic changes and high altitude adaptations (Brandini et al. 2018; Fehren-Schmitz et al. 2010; Gomez-Carballa et al. 2018; Llamas et al. 2016; Kemp, et al. 2009; Sandoval et al. 2013; Shinoda et al. 2006), while some studies have used bioarchaeological data to make inferences on their internal social structure (Baca et al. 2012; Mendisco et al. 2018; Russo et al. 2016; Velasco 2018; Nagaoka et al. 2020). Through the extraction and analysis of mitochondrial DNA from ten mummified Nasca individuals, we assess available genetic signatures, while identifying the methodological challenges associated with extracting aDNA from highly degraded material. From the DNA sequence data on this sample, we make inferences on broad lineage affiliations and provide context for the Nasca peoples’ biology.

Conference topic

Panel no. 05 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#288 My FGM Story

Judy Aslett from GB (judy.aslett@sussex.ac.uk) (University of Sussex)



Abstract

Abstract title

My FGM Story

Abstract text

I made this factual documentary film, in collaboration with grassroots activists and the journalist Halimatou Cessay, to support the campaign to end FGM in The Gambia. 200 million women worldwide have undergone Female Genital Mutilation where their clitoris and other parts of their genitalia are removed for no medical reason. In The Gambia, 75 percent of girls and women have undergone FGM, most before the age of fifteen. The practice was made illegal in The Gambia in 2015 but FGM is still carried out and to date there have been no successful prosecutions. This film accurately reflects the current discourse and practice of FGM in the country. The film was shown on GRTS (state television) in March 2020; the first time such a controversial film has ever been broadcast in The Gambia. "My FGM Story" is Halimatou's story. She interviews her family, health professionals, young Gambian women and men, members of the government, including the president Adama Barrow, about why FGM continues to be practised in The Gambia. Most of the viewers said it had given them more information about FGM and made them look at the practise more closely. Many said the film was shocking, and some said it had changed their minds and they would no longer have their girl child cut.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#290 SIGNIFICANCE OF TRADITIONAL NUMBER SYSTEM, MEASUREMENTS AND ETHNIC CALENDAR AMONG THE LITTLE KNOWN KARBI TRIBAL GROUP IN ASSAM, INDIA

SOMENATH BHATTACHARJEE from IN (bhattacharjee_somenath@rediffmail.com) (ASSAM UNIVERSITY)



Abstract

Abstract title

SIGNIFICANCE OF TRADITIONAL NUMBER SYSTEM, MEASUREMENTS AND ETHNIC CALENDAR AMONG THE LITTLE KNOWN KARBI TRIBAL GROUP IN ASSAM, INDIA

Abstract text

Oral traditions are the core part of tribal communication system. Generation wise it is transmitted among them. It is part of their cultural tradition and is intimately associated with their socialization process. Such method of traditional communication is the prime essential aspect of the regular mode of livelihood. In any tribal society the process of traditional communication can be divided into a number of sections. Among them the method of number system and measurements are very significant. It is a very crucial aspect for them particularly related to their traditional economic organization and livelihood. The present study is focused on the traditional method of number system, measurements and ethnic calendar among the Karbi tribal people of Karbi Anglong, Assam.

Conference topic

Panel no. 27 - The Future of Indigenous Knowledge in Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#291 Kinship, intimacy and the imaginary of a new psychiatric alterity

Paola Juan from CH (paola.juan@unil.ch) (University of Lausanne)



Abstract

Abstract title

Kinship, intimacy and the imaginary of a new psychiatric alterity

Abstract text

This paper questions how family members change their perception of a relative when confronted with a new psychiatric imaginary. It is based on a fieldwork realised in Switzerland (2019-2020). The psychoanalytic and psychiatric discourses – viewed as a form of kinscript (Stack and Burton, 1993), that is, a story that families tell themselves about what acts upon and transmits values and ethics (ideas of love, choice, lineage) - provide new ways of understanding the patient-relative, which initiates a shift in the kinship system in order to cope with the new position the relative will take within the kinship group as a network of intersubjective belongings (Rupert Stasch, 2009, 107 in Sahlins, 2013: 23) and in its intersubjective relationships. Whilst the literature on the subject often points out that there is a gap between the views of families and mental health professionals (e.g. Solomon et al. 1988, Bernheim & Lehman, 1985; Hatfield, 1978, 1982, 1983), this literature is often clinically oriented and aims to integrate better families, as caretakers, into mental health services; it frames the issue from the point of view of the clinical perspective. This paper thus aims to understand better how a process of alterisation and of reframing of the understanding of the person often starts for relatives who encounter a new form of alterity in their most intimate sphere, when confronted with the authority of the psychiatric institution and its imaginary.

Conference topic

Panel no. 84 - Imagine Kinship!

Preferred format

Oral



#292 Enveloped by Hope: Yiliao Pianju (Health Fraud Scam), Healthcare and Regimes of Living in Post-reform China

Xin Wang from AU (u5818909@anu.edu.au) (The Australian National University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Enveloped by Hope: Yiliao Pianju (Health Fraud Scam), Healthcare and Regimes of Living in Post-reform China

Abstract text

Stories about people swindled by the advertised promise of cure proliferate in Chinese media today. Among such stories, biomedical technologies and treatments are packaged as experimental (shiyan), advanced (xianjin), or innovative (chuangxin), recommended by an expert (zhuanjia) or sometimes hailed as “miracle drugs”. But what has been peddled as hope to patients in their desperate journey of treatment-seeking often turns out to be a betrayal of hope. Defined by people and media in China as yiliao pianju (health fraud scam), these stories always have hope (xiwang) as the detectable key term and hope has indeed created a distinctive terrain of affect and action, through which we can explore the social conditions and the complex lived experience of people in post-reform China. In this paper, I adopt hope as an analytical tool to explore the expansion and growth of yuliao pianju in post-reform China. Specifically, I reject the simplistic positive understanding of hope and instead focus on its negative side and conceptualize it as multifaceted. In so doing, I attempt to interrogate the ways that nostalgia for the socialist healthcare system of the past interacts with ideas about the future and technology, thereby revealing the role of state in the work of hope and people’s lives under conditions of socio-political and healthcare reform. By relating the state’s management of crisis like yuliao pianju to its promotion of positive discourses like positive energy (zheng nengliang), I also try to unveil a novel regime of ‘hopeful’ living shared among people in post-reform China.

Conference topic

Panel no. 30 - Generational Affects: Anthropological Ways Toward Re-Enchanting Disenchantment

Preferred format

Oral



#293 Parenting children with mental disorders and intellectual disabilities at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries in Croatia

Jelena Seferović from HR (jelenaseferovic@yahoo.com) (Institute for Anthropological Research)



Abstract

Abstract title

Parenting children with mental disorders and intellectual disabilities at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries in Croatia

Abstract text

A study of personal files of children and adolescents hospitalized at the Royal Institute for the Mentally Ill in Stenjevac, now the University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapče in Zagreb, dating to the late 19th and early 20th centuries, showed that the latter were often victims of verbal and physical abuse by their parents. The professional approach in their treatment during their stay in the psychiatric hospital was also inappropriate and inadequate. The lack of understanding of the physical and emotional difficulties of the researched population by the experts also resulted from insufficient research on this issue within medicine, psychology and pedagogy. Low education or uneducated status of parents whose parenting practices are critically analyzed in the presentation, contributed to a misunderstanding of the needs and non-acceptance of their children’s behavior. In addition, mostly a cold emotionally parental approach to children with mental disorders and intellectual disabilities was partly due to the fact that this population was not able to actively participate in work on farms, while the agriculture was the main source of livelihood of the then rural family. On the one hand, due to risky and socially unacceptable behaviors, and on the other hand, due to weak social functionalism, the parents of the latter had a need for their care in a psychiatric hospital.

Conference topic

Panel no. 75 - Legacies and Next Generation Parenting

Preferred format

Oral



#294 Family Firms and Business Families in Russia and Japan: A Cross-Cultural Research Perspective

Tobias Köllner from DE (tobias.koellner@uni-wh.de) (Witten/Herdecke University) , Sigrun Caspary from DE (sigrun.caspary@uni-wh.de) (Witten/Herdecke University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Family Firms and Business Families in Russia and Japan: A Cross-Cultural Research Perspective

Abstract text

To date, family business received little attention in enterprise anthropology and we still need a better understanding of how family firms and business families operate in different cultural contexts and how the family influences economic decision-making. Therefore, this proposal aims to highlight the role of the family behind the company (see also Kleve & Köllner 2019). In so doing, we take a comparative perspective, taking into account the specific cultural and historical context. The starting point for this is the work of Sylvia Yanagisako, who understands “capitalist action as culturally produced and, therefore, always infused with cultural meaning and value” (Yanagisako 2002: 6). From this it becomes clear that culture and capitalism produce each other, so that “a model of culture and capitalism as mutually constituted processes...” is needed (ibid.). Drawing on Yanagisako’s findings, the central aim of the presentation is to understand how certain motives, practices and strategies are produced in daily economic activity, and how they shape the family firm and the business family. To this end, material is presented that is based on ethnographic field studies in European Russia and Japan. Based on the empirical material, approaches for a comparative perspective will be presented and discussed aiming to move beyond the dichotomous juxtapositions that can be found, for example, in the works of Geert Hofstede (2001). Furthermore, it is not our intention to ‘orientalize’ economic activity or to develop any form of ‘Asian capitalism’ but to emphasize similarities and differences in more detail.

Conference topic

Panel no. 26 - Enterprise Anthropology: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives

Preferred format

Oral



#295 Did WWI change marriage patterns and the criterion of partner selection in Poland?

Pankowski Patryk from PL (panpat94@gmail.com) (Adam Mickiewicz University) , Helena M. Repczyńska from PL (helena.repczynska@wp.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University) , Wirginia Wojtczak from PL (wojtczak.wirginia@gmail.com) (Adam Mickiewicz University) , Grażyna Liczbińska from PL (grazyna@amu.edu.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Did WWI change marriage patterns and the criterion of partner selection in Poland?

Abstract text

WWI had a significant impact on European citizens, including social, economic and political changes. In 1918 Poland regained its independence after 123 years of partitions. After the liberation, the citizens struggled with poverty, unemployment and post-war destruction. The aim of the study is to investigate the changes in marriage patterns, including changes in the age of entering into matrimony and the criterion of the partner selection before and after WWI. For this purpose, registration cards of the Poznań inhabitants for the years 1870-1931 were used. The research used the following information: date and place of birth of the spouses, dates of marriage, marital status, religion and social status of the partners. The age at marriage was calculated for men and women due to their socio-cultural factors. Coefficients of correlation between ages at marriage of partners by their socio-economic status were calculated. A correlation was shown between the age of partners and between their territorial mobility. The analysis of Cox proportional hazard showed a significant influence of marital status, religion and territorial mobility on partner selection. After 1918, people married later than before the war. The economic disparities between city and countryside, the Spanish flu at the end of WWI, the economic crisis in the 1920s as well as social and religious disproportions in the country influenced the partner selection and age at marriage.

Conference topic

Panel no. 14 - Environmental Stress Impact on Human Biology, Health Status and Demography

Preferred format

Oral



#296 Sex ratio at birth following the environmental stress. The pilot study of the Detva population (The Upper Hungary Kingdom), 1801-1920

Jan Golian from SK (goliannes@gmail.com) (Catholic University in RuzomberokHrabovská cesta 1) , Grażyna Liczbińska from PL (grazyna@amu.edu.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Sex ratio at birth following the environmental stress. The pilot study of the Detva population (The Upper Hungary Kingdom), 1801-1920

Abstract text

According to biological law, the ratio of male-to-female live births (secondary sex ratio, SSR) should be in the range of 105–108% of female live births. Many studies have suggested that SSR fluctuations may have been the result of exposure of pregnant women to severe stress, which affects either the selection of zygote sex at conception, or on spontaneous selective abortion of male foetuses. Both modifications ultimately lead to a reduction in the number of live male births to the number of live female births. The male-to-female live births index is considered an indicator of broadly understood environmental conditions, caused by ecological, economic, political factors, etc. In this presentation we will check whether and to what extent the SSR values may have reflected the unstable situation caused by the Napoleonic wars, economic crises, hunger and crop failure, WWI and post-war turmoil. We used the aggregate data on the numbers of births (N=53,355) for the years 1801–1920. They were derived from births registers of the Detva parish, the Upper Hungary Kingdom. The lowest average SSR values were recorded in critical event, being at the level of 0.96 (ranged between 0.93–1.0), while the highest – in the periods of the stable situation, 1.11.

Conference topic

Panel no. 14 - Environmental Stress Impact on Human Biology, Health Status and Demography

Preferred format

Oral



#297 Ecological and cultural aspects of the introduction of non-human primates in insular environments beyond their homeland

Cecilia Veracini from PT (cveracini2011@gmail.com) (University of Lisbon) , Masseti Marco from IT (marco.masseti@unifi.it) (University of Florence)



Abstract

Abstract title

Ecological and cultural aspects of the introduction of non-human primates in insular environments beyond their homeland

Abstract text

Since antiquity non-human primates were introduced in many places beyond their homeland. Insular environments, as a consequence of their ecological isolation, are typically more affected by the arrival of one or more exotic species. A preliminary survey has shown that the species introduced by humans in these environments are approx. 12. Among the best known species we find the Asian Crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) introduced in many places, such as Mauritius and some islands of Indonesia; the African (Chlorocebus sabaeus), introduced in Cabo Verde and West Indian islands; the capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) introduced in Margarita Island in Venezuela and the common marmoset, (Callithrix jacchus), native of the Northeast of Brazil, released in some small Islands of the Rio de Janeiro state. Different historical periods and various motivations characterized the introduction of these species. Some of these primates are today considered pests and they can damage or compete with the local fauna (e.g. the common marmoset predates an high number of bird’s nests). Others, who have lived in these ecosystems for thousand or hundred years, are today part of the trophic chains and have also important roles in the local humans’ cultures. This paper aims to discuss the symbolical and biological role of non-human primates in insular environments considered both as invaders and/or victims of humans’ exploitation. It will be compared the context of contemporary and old civilizations, the cultural and religious value of primates and their adaptation and resilience in a highly anthropic world.

Conference topic

Panel no. 50 - Invasiveness: Knowledges, Constructions and Representations of Invasive Species

Preferred format

Oral



#298 The new material culture produced by the wars in Yugoslavia: monumentalisation practices and policies

Adelaide Mura from IT (ademura@hotmail.it) (University of Sassari)



Abstract

Abstract title

The new material culture produced by the wars in Yugoslavia: monumentalisation practices and policies

Abstract text

The transformations undergone by the countries of the former Yugoslav Federation also affect the new cultural heritage. The “invention” of the heritages, translated into buildings, structures (like houses, palaces, bunkers, trenches, but also bullets, grenades), crossed by the wars of the 90s, contributed to the conservation and transmission of memory and the construction of the cultural identity of the witnesses of the conflict and of the new generations. Some communities use the monumentalisation, even spontaneous, of the war theaters and of those buildings, once for normal use, today symbols of the cultural identity and of the war in Yugoslavia, not only to preserve memory but also to increase tourism. Cities such as Vukovar or Sarajevo can be defined as places of remembrance with museums in which objects become sacred and stabilizing forces in social relations. The nature of the new heritages, inserted in the today industrialized contexts of these cities, deserves a deeper understanding of the practices and policies that lie behind the invention and construction of them. The history that has passed through the objects transforms their traditional meaning from the past into the modern one of cultural heritage. Starting from an ethnographic research, the paper proposes the analysis of the new material culture produced (the traces of the war and the monuments) and the memory of the witnesses of the conflict. Memory transmitted and handed down to posterity and that presents itself as an unprecedented and authentic historical datum with the aim of understanding monumentalisation practices and policies.

Conference topic

Panel no. 02 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#299 #Nãofoiacidente: The political meaning of the nature|culture dualism in the context of recent dam collapses in Minas Gerais / Brazil

Theresa Mentrup from DE (tmentrup@uni-mainz.de) (University of Mainz)



Abstract

Abstract title

#Nãofoiacidente: The political meaning of the nature|culture dualism in the context of recent dam collapses in Minas Gerais / Brazil

Abstract text

In recent years, Brazil has suffered two mining tragedies: the dam collapse of “Mariana” on November 5, 2015 and the “Brumadinho dam disaster” on January 25, 2019. Although both resulted in death, devastated livelihoods, and poisoned their surrounding environments with tons of toxic mud, they were framed rather distinctly. Whereas politicians labeled the former an “environmental accident,” the latter was primarily addressed as a “humanitarian catastrophe.” In contrast, the coronavirus pandemic, for instance, has not been called a ”disaster” or “catastrophe” at all. Against this background, this paper aims at re-thinking the differentiation between so-called “natural” and “man-made disasters” (cf., e.g., Barrios 2017) in anthropological disaster research, (public) policy, and practice. By analyzing newspapers’ framing and anthropological examinations of the incidents (cf. Taddei 2020), it sets out to unravel the political implications of the nature|culture dualism and the role of science in its (r)evocation. What political consequences emerge from the different ways in which these disastrous occurrences are addressed? To what extent does such labeling pre-structure political, legal, and administrative responses? To what extent are these responses met by counter-narratives and resistance? And what is the role of science in general and anthropology in particular in shaping these debates? Tackling these questions, this paper argues in favor of destabilizing the notion of an essential difference between types of “disaster.” To this end, it enquires into the visual and rhetorical epistemologies by which “disaster imaginaries” (cf. Calhoun 2010) are brought into our everyday life by the media, politics, and science.

Conference topic

Panel no. 100 - Exploring the Gap Between Knowledge, Policy and Practice. Contributions to Anthropology of Disaster & Climate Change Worldwide with Special Stress on the Global South  

Preferred format

Oral



#301 The Analytical Framework of Governance in health policies in the face of health emergencies

Lina Díaz-Castro from MX (amairanai@gmail.com) (National Institute of Psychiatry (INPRFM)) , Maria Guadalupe Ramirez-Rojas from MX (f.ramirez.msp@gmail.com) (National Council of Science & Technology (C...) , Ever Sánchez Osorio from MX (amairanai@gmail.com) (National Council of Science & Technology (CONACYT)) , Héctor Cabello Rangel from MX (amairanai@gmail.com) (\\\"Fray Bernardino Álvarez\\\" Psychiatric Hos...) , Mauricio I. Velázquez-Posada from MX (amairanai@gmail.com) (Ministry of Health)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Analytical Framework of Governance in health policies in the face of health emergencies

Abstract text

The Governance Analytical Framework (MAG) defines governance as a social fact, endowed with analyzable and interpretable characteristics, through what it calls observable constitutive elements of governance: the problem, the actors, the social norms, the process, and the nodal points; in the sense that each society develops its modes of governance, its decision-making or conflict resolution systems among its members, its norms, and institutions. In this perspective, the purpose of this article was to carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature to understand the role of governance in health policies in international health emergencies, such as that caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The systematic review was designed based on the methodology proposed in the PRISMA Declaration. The scientific literature search was carried out in six databases: Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, APA PsycInfo, MEDLINE Complete, eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), PubMED, and MedicLatina, published in the last five years. Fifteen articles that met quality and evidence criteria were analyzed. The governance approach alluding to the health emergency problem in health policies was the most addressed by the authors (80%), followed by a description of the participating actors (40%), the process, and decision-making spaces (33%), and ultimately, social norms or rules with 13%. Formulating a coherent set of global health policies within a large-scale global governance framework is mostly absent. Although the countries adopt international approaches (or policies), it is a process differentiated by the social, economic, and political contexts between countries, affecting heterogeneous health outcomes over the pandemic.

Conference topic

Panel no. 05 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#303 The Future of Aging: Practices, Narrations, and Envisioning of Aging in Zagreb's Urban Space

Tihana Rubic from HR (trubic@ffzg.hr) (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Future of Aging: Practices, Narrations, and Envisioning of Aging in Zagreb's Urban Space

Abstract text

This paper presents an ethnological and cultural-anthropological reflection on aging and envisioning the future of/for the elderly in the context of urban space. The author points to possible approaches to age and aging research, both through narratives and through everyday practices, and urban futures from ethnological and cultural-anthropological perspective. Recent and contemporary narratives and practices of aging in the context of the Croatian capital are ethnographically described in the paper, and sociocultural concepts of future-making, urban development, urban (public) space, and active aging have been used. The author seeks to encourage discussion based on ethnographic research, on more sustainable urban development sensitive to the elderly as a marginalized group.

Conference topic

Panel no. 63 - Coming of (Old) Age on Earth: Imagining Our Aging Future

Preferred format

Oral



#304 Tribal Education in India: Issues and Challenges

AJEET JAISWAL from IN (rpgajeet@gmail.com) (Central University of Tamil Nadu)



Abstract

Abstract title

Tribal Education in India: Issues and Challenges

Abstract text

India is a home to a large variety of indigenous people. The Scheduled Tribe population represents one of the most economically impoverished and marginalized groups in India. With a population of more than 10.2crores, India has the single largest tribal population in the world. This constitutes 8.6 per cent of the total population of the country (Census of India, 2011).Education is one of the primary agents of transformation towards development. Education is in fact, an input not only for economic development of tribes but also for inner strength of the tribal communities which helps them in meeting the new challenges of life The objective of the paper is to analyse the status of tribal education with literacy rate, gross enrolment ratio, dropout rates and Gender Parity Index in India. The analysis is based on secondary data of Census of India, 2011. The percentage of literacy of tribes was only 8.54 per cent in 1961 which has increased to 63.1 per cent in 2011. The gross enrollment ratio is higher in class I to V which is 137.2 for ST boys and 136.7 for ST girls.The Gender Parity Index for ST children is almost same as all categories of children except for class XI to XII.

Conference topic

Panel no. 05 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#306 The Breakup of Britain: Progressive Utopia or Regressive Nationalism?

Gabriela Manley from GB (gm88@st-andrews.ac.uk) (University of St Andrews)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Breakup of Britain: Progressive Utopia or Regressive Nationalism?

Abstract text

The Scottish National Party (SNP) has historically marketed itself as a civic movement, rejecting ethnic nationalist discourse and aligning itself with socially democratic values. It has presented a popular vision of Scottish independence as a progressive, left-wing utopia that is only achievable through the breakup of Britain. This vision sits in direct contradiction to those in Scotland who reject independence and consider Scottish independence to be an intrinsically regressive movement. Their visions of progress and future utopias lie in the imaginations of a Scotland that remains part of the UK. These two contrasting visions of ‘the good future’ sit in growing tension as the SNP prepares to call a new independence referendum in Scotland. This paper argues that neither futural vision can be described as ‘progressive’ or ‘regressive’, in part because there is no tenable epistemological difference between these two terms. Rather, both visions stem from deeply affective yet diametrically opposed ideas of what an independent future would look like for Scotland. Both movements seek to secure ‘the good life’, yet this end goal is achieved through radically different means in both cases. It will emphasize the importance of asking for whom is the movement progressive? Why is it considered progressive? Who is the ‘unlikable other’? To do so, it will seek to problematise the very category of ‘progressive’ by showing how both movements share fundamentally similar hopes, desires and imaginations of the future that allow them to claim the ‘progressive’ tag whilst rejecting their counterparts as ‘regressive’.

Conference topic

Panel no. 101 - Progressive/Regressive Visions of the Future? Towards a Dialectical "Next Generation Anthropology" of Social Movements

Preferred format

Oral



#307 Performance of the Health System in Mexico in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of key actors

Maria Guadalupe Ramirez-Rojas from MX (guadalupe.ramirez@ciesas.edu.mx) (CONACYT, CIESAS-Sureste) , Lina Díaz-Castro from MX (guadalupe.ramirez@ciesas.edu.mx) (INPRFM IInstituto Nacional de Psiquiatría) , Héctor Cabello Rangel from MX (guadalupe.ramirez@ciesas.edu.mx) (Hospital Psiquiátrico "Fray Bernardino Álvarez") , Ever Sánchez Osorio from MX (guadalupe.ramirez@ciesas.edu.mx) (CONACYT, CIATEJ) , Mauricio I. Velázquez-Posada from MX (guadalupe.ramirez@ciesas.edu.mx) (Secretaría de Salud de México)



Abstract

Abstract title

Performance of the Health System in Mexico in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of key actors

Abstract text

This study sets out the role of perceptions of key actors in the health sector in building social representations relating to the performance of the Health System in Mexico in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. We interview key players from the different subsystems that make up the Health System, which we identify as political, strategic, tactical and operational, depending on their responsibilities and the area in which they make decisions. We comment on the definition of social artifacts that illustrate –and allow– the finition of the governance of a sistema de salud,emphasizing the fact that the social object of any health system is to provide services to care for collective health. The different social representations materialize in the perception of the actors involved in decision-making and are implemented in su their individual performance and collective performance, according to orders of the highest level of power. The governance of Health Systems enhances the mechanical reproduction of these representations in the work, thinking and visualizing of those who articulate their operation. From where it is inferred that such governance serves as a device of power from which the social artifacts deployed in the perception of key players emerge.

Conference topic

Poster session

Preferred format

Poster



#308 Rethinking Traditional Medicine: Anthropology and Shifting Discourse on Possession and Ritual Healing in India

Ivan Souček from SK (soucek.ivan@gmail.com) (Matej Bel University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Rethinking Traditional Medicine: Anthropology and Shifting Discourse on Possession and Ritual Healing in India

Abstract text

It is well known that the medical environment in India can be characterized by a number of local healthcare providers offering a variety of services. One of the most popular techniques of healing in South Asia is performed by persons who can enter a trance-like state and become the “vessel” of a deity. Looking back at the historiography of ritual healing and possession, we should keep in mind that the topic has been analysed by various theoretical frameworks largely developed by Western scholars fascinated by “exotic” cultures. Early missionaries and ethnographers largely saw possession as a profound example of exotic practice attributed to evil spirits. Most approaches subsequently have preferred a medical paradigm for interpretation, sharing the common assumption that the meaning of possession has to be couched in terms of neurosis or psychosis. However, decline in modern social science interest in positivistic ideologies and the gradual deviation from the idea of Western superiority have led to a changing focus on the role of traditional healers in India. Several recent anthropological contributions are, therefore, not only inclined towards a more sensitive approach in dealing with effectiveness of ritual healing but also propose a more appropriate methodology for research of the phenomenon generally considered by Western audiences to be exotic. The aim is not to criticize Western conceptual understanding of possession practices in India, but simply to analyse the shifting discourse on healthcare issues in a medical landscape characterized by existence of a great variety of treatment options.

Conference topic

Panel no. 58 - Coming of Age for the Traditional Medicine System of Indigenous Populations: Is Connecting the Unconnected the Way Forward?

Preferred format

Oral



#309 Live With It

Pascale Hancart Petitet from FR (pascale.hancart-petitet@ird.fr) (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement) , Thiane Khamvongsa from LA (thiane.khamvongsa@gmail.com) (Beast on the Moon) , Peter Livermoore from LA (peter.livermore@7orients.com) (Seven Orients)



Abstract

Abstract title

Live With It

Abstract text

The film Live With It is born from the encounter between Pascale Hancart Petitet, anthropologist, Thiane Khamvongsa, artist, and Peter Livermoore, filmmaker. Live With It is a performance combining dance and theatre. The companies Beast of the Moon and Fang Lao worked from ethnographic interviews collected within a research project on migratory pathways and infectious vulnerabilities, conducted by non-researchers, representatives of associations of people living with HIV in Laos, trained in research practices. The interviews show social and conjugal violence, the practices of selling sexual services, the use of illicit products, but also but also the love stories that are made and undone. The purpose of the performance is to embark the audience on what has been for the performers, a very moving journey through a handful of stories of men and women. If the testimonies came from the data of the study conducted by the IRD, the performance then had to leave the scientific field and the restitution of data, to enter a purely emotional dimension, expressed only by the body, the movement, the words and the music. The filming with multiple cameras tried to capture the movements in a broad way and also to pull the spectator close into the details; it also tried to capture the facial expressions and the emotion transmitted by the voice. The work makes use of the aesthetic experience for both knowledge production across knowledge systems and for the emergence of emotional connections, new subjectivities and practices.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#310 Aspects of the researcher’s identity and their impact on ethnographic research

Kholoud Al-Ajarma from NL (kajarma@gmail.com) (University of Groningen)



Abstract

Abstract title

Aspects of the researcher’s identity and their impact on ethnographic research

Abstract text

This paper focuses on the use of multi-sited ethnography in anthropological research in relation to the researcher’s identity(ies), gender, and power relations. The author, a female, Palestinian, and Muslim, reflects on the implications of this multi-faceted status on conducting ethnographic field research in a context that is culturally familiar but is not of her own indigenous society or culture, namely, Morocco and Saudi Arabia. The paper begins with a discussion of the significance of conducting anthropological research from the perspective of ‘everyday life’ and argues that such an approach is necessary in examining micro-practices in the lives of Muslims with specific reference to the researcher’s 20-months fieldwork on pilgrimage and its significance in Morocco. The author then discusses aspects of her identity, such as national and gender identifications, in relation to her ethnographic research as both an asset and a challenge especially in relation to the insider/outsider debates. The paper concludes with some reflections from the researcher’s experience during fieldwork and attempts to shows how ethnographic research can provide insights into the wide variety of ways in which religious and cultural issues are adopted in practice. In this way, ethnographic research can be held to challenge the perception of the gap between Muslims and non-Muslims that is often assumed in popular debate.

Conference topic

Panel no. 91 - Knowing in the Field: Ethnography in Overbearing Conditions (sponsored by the Arab Council for the Social Sciences)

Preferred format

Oral



#312 A sociopolitical trajectory of the Oil Sardine (Sardine Longiceps) in the Coromandel Coast of India

Nicolas Bautes from IN (nicolas.bautes@ifpindia.org) (French Institute of Pondichery) , Bhagat Singh from IN (bhagath.singh@ifpindia.org) (French Institute of Pondichery) , P Arunkumar from IN (pu.arunkumar@gmail.com) (French Institute of Pondichery)



Abstract

Abstract title

A sociopolitical trajectory of the Oil Sardine (Sardine Longiceps) in the Coromandel Coast of India

Abstract text

Based on a series of ethnographies conducted in artisanal fishing villages of Cuddalore district and in its main fishing harbor where coexist different modes of fishing (both artisanal and mechanized), this contribution aims at describing and decipher the sociopolitical trajectory of sardines in the Tamil Nadu coastal area. Guided by a method of investigation that aim to “follow the thing” (Cook et al., 2004) - here, a species of fish – from the sea to the market and to the ways it is bought and cooked in households, and through an historical approach, this paper intends to show the interplay between fisher folk and seafood by restoring several trajectories of a specie extracted from its natural habitat to its circulation in market and consuming spaces. By documenting oil sardines’ journey from sea to harbor to trade to market until reaching kitchens, we will encompass livelihoods of many groups associated with it, from fishermen, traders, port laborers to small vendors, and cooks.

Conference topic

Panel no. 95 - The Tides of Change: Living Off and With Heritage on the Coast

Preferred format

Oral



#313 Searching for blood: approximation between the development of menstrual technologies and war technologies.

Clarissa Reche from BR (clari.reche@gmail.com) (University of Campinas) , Érico Perrella from BR (erico.perrella@gmail.com) (University of Campinas)



Abstract

Abstract title

Searching for blood: approximation between the development of menstrual technologies and war technologies.

Abstract text

Do a “Hormonized Latin Supermodel” and a “Young American Drone Operator” have something in common? This is an experiment of approximation between two ethnographies in progress, with the purpose of provoking creative tensions in our works. We established partial connections between parallel technoscientific developments, which took place between the end of the first world war and the present time: from the creation and commercialization of menstrual sanitary pads to the development of menstrual suppression via "hormonization"; and from the training of "machine men" necessary for the military tactic known as "blitzkrieg" and it develops until the formation of the so-called "surgical war". When we look at these two figurations of bodies that emerge in a “pharmacopornographic era”, we notice how both the Hormonized Latin Supermodel and the Young American Drone Operator bring with them the attempt to make visual references to blood disappear. Finally, we suggest that such disappearance composes the dynamics of shaping new spaces of transnational capitalist existence. The blood's insistence on leaking, however, forces us to pay attention to alternative ways of life.

Conference topic

Panel no. 104 - Performing Substances, Transmitting Legacies

Preferred format

Oral



#314 Caring for people through caring for plants: A therapeutic gardening project for refugees and asylum seekers in Manchester, UK

William Wheeler from GB (william.wheeler@manchester.ac.uk) (University of Manchester)



Abstract

Abstract title

Caring for people through caring for plants: A therapeutic gardening project for refugees and asylum seekers in Manchester, UK

Abstract text

Refugees and asylum seekers in the UK often lead precarious lives, subject to opaque bureaucratic and legal processes, which compound traumas from the country of origin. In this context, the Growing Together project seeks to create a therapeutic space operating on an ethic of care: caring for people, caring for plants, and caring for people through encouraging them to care for plants. This paper is based on long-term ethnography as a garden volunteer. Through the shared activities of tending for plants, developing the site, harvesting, and eating together, the project fosters a sense of belonging and reduce isolation. The organisation operates on democratic principles, where all participants are encouraged to feel equal ownership of the project – transcending the border that separates citizens from non-citizens. Emblematic of the project's politics is rugari, a brassica brought by Zimbabwean participants that can be propagated by cuttings; Zimbabwean participants take pride both in tending for the plant, which is described as their 'babies', and in cooking and feeding it to the whole group. From its propagation through to its consumption, I suggest that rugari disrupts normative models of kinship, which, in turn, disrupts the dominant politics of migration. Nevertheless, inevitably, a division remains between the volunteers and the participants, and tensions can arise both among participants and between participants and volunteers. In the messy process of negotiating these tensions, I argue, the alternative politics of migration emerges, not transcending but redefining and reworking the boundary between citizen and non-citizen.

Conference topic

Panel no. 71 - Encounters Across Difference: Moving Beyond Dark Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#315 How to raise an entrepreneur? Contradicting educational experiments in Slovenia

Saša Poljak Istenič from SI (sasa.poljak@zrc-sazu.si) (ZRC SAZU)



Abstract

Abstract title

How to raise an entrepreneur? Contradicting educational experiments in Slovenia

Abstract text

Most modern countries believe that education is crucial for raising children into citizens tailored to the state's agenda, which in the late capitalism implies modeling them into entrepreneurs independent from the state. The first attempts at entrepreneurship education date back to the time immediately after the Second World War, but it flourished only in the 1970s in the USA and then spread globally. In the former socialist countries, this phenomenon could be traced back to the 1990s. In Slovenia, entrepreneurial study circles have been implemented in schools in 1995, and the first strategy for introducing entrepreneurship into the regular school system dates back to 2006. Up to today, two "directions" of entrepreneurial education have been established in Slovenia. The first is practiced by the public agency Spirit Slovenia which funds different projects, supports entrepreneurship competitions for young people, and organizes teacher training. Company Ustvarjalnik / Creator follows a different educational model; it focuses on helping young people to transform their ideas into the first products. While the former seeks to educate as many primary and secondary school students as possible about entrepreneurship, the latter works with young people who already have an entrepreneurial idea and want to start a business; their target group is mainly high school and university students. Based on the interviews with entrepreneurs and organizations' representatives practicing presented "directions" of entrepreneurship education, the paper will reflect on the effectiveness of the school education and extracurricular activities as well as discuss ethical dispositions formed in these processes.

Conference topic

Panel no. 15 - Coming of Age as Entrepreneurs: Biopolitics and Ethics of Youth in Modern-Day Economies

Preferred format

Oral



#316 Teaching Research Methods Online

H. Russell Bernard from US (ufruss@ufl.edu) (Arizona Stat University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Teaching Research Methods Online

Abstract text

We know from many studies as well as from experience the advantages and disadvantages of online learning. This paper covers some lessons about the teaching of research methods that may not be obvious. The most important of these lessons is that online teaching is not just as good as in-person instruction -- it's better.

Conference topic

Panel no. 41 - Technology: Teaching and Learning Anthropology Around the World

Preferred format

Oral



#317 Reasons for return, transnational belonging, re-adaptation and social remittances

Violetta Parutis from LT (vparutis@essex.ac.uk) (Vytautas Magnus University) , Marta Buler from PL (mbuler@swps.edu.pl) (SWPS University / Youth Research Center)



Abstract

Abstract title

Reasons for return, transnational belonging, re-adaptation and social remittances

Abstract text

Based on in-depth interviews with Polish and Lithuanian returnees, the paper aims to explore the link between reasons for return, returnees’ transnational sense of belonging, and social remittances that they bring to their countries of origin. We use typologies of returnees created by Cerase (1974), Karolak (2015) and Dzieglewski (2019) as a starting point, develop them by unpacking and problematizing them further based on our empirical material. We then use theories of transnational belonging based on returnees’ transnational practices but also sense of ‘home’. In this context we then explore what type of social remittances returnees bring to their country of origin and how successful they are at implementing them. In our analysis we compare the likelihood of different types of returnees to contribute (or not) to significant social, institutional and cultural change in Poland and Lithuania. We explore the returns of world citizens, innovators, the maladjusted and others who acquire social remittances in order to transfer them to the country of origin, albeit with varied success. We also distinguish the returns of conservatism and failure, where migrants might resist a change altogether and where social remitting process may be limited to the private sphere or may not happen at all.

Conference topic

Panel no. 87 - Capitalizing Return. Remigrants and Transnational Networks as Significant Actors of Change

Preferred format

Oral



#318 Calcified identities: persisting essentialism in collections of human remains

Jonatan Kurzwelly from DE (jonatan.kurzwelly@gmail.com) (University of Goettingen) , Malin Sonja Wilckens from DE (m.wilckens@uni-bielefeld.de) (Bielefeld University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Calcified identities: persisting essentialism in collections of human remains

Abstract text

History of racism and colonialism is inextricably connected with the history of science, and in particular with the essentialist notions of human beings and social groups. From the Valladolid debate about moral and legal character of ‘natives’ in 16th century, through to the 18th and 19th century arguments between mono- and poly-genetic origin of human beings, to 20th century theories of eugenics and selective pairing oriented towards purity or improvement of ‘races’, scholars provided arguments which justified discrimination, exploitation and genocide. Such scholars often collected and examined vast numbers of human remains from around the world, especially skulls which were often obtained in violent or questionable circumstances, to construct and support their theoretical models. Today these collections of objects-subjects (scientific objects, historical and spiritual subjects) play an important role in debates about decoloniality and broadly (and usually vaguely) defined reconciliation. However, the understanding and treatment of these human remains often falls into new forms of essentialism, reproducing a calcified understanding of identities. In this presentation we will compare and problematise scientific essentialism produced by some anatomists and physical anthropologists of 18th-20th century, with contemporary essentialist discourses and practices embedded in the problematic collections of human remains.

Conference topic

Panel no. 81 - Essentialism in Deprecatory Expressions of the Other: Comparing Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Examples with Those of the Early 21st Century

Preferred format

Oral



#319 Popular right, ideological heterogeneity, and the management of capitalist crisis: the politicization of the forex mortgage crisis in Hungary

Agnes Gagyi from SE (agnes.gagyi@gu.se) (University of Gothenburg)



Abstract

Abstract title

Popular right, ideological heterogeneity, and the management of capitalist crisis: the politicization of the forex mortgage crisis in Hungary

Abstract text

Anthropological and political sociological research on illiberal transformation in Eastern Europe has emphasized a turn towards nationalist critiques of neoliberal postsocialist development in the rows of lower middle class and workers as an important factor of support for Orbán’s politics. Based on an in-depth research on the forex debtors’ movement in Hungary, carried out between 2017-2019, I wish to specify, and in some respects, contest these claims, arguing that popular right-wing antineoliberalism was a heterogenous popular ideology with strong social claims, and that the penetration, cooptation and – in a next phase – silencing of these claims from the part of conservative elites needs to be understood not only in terms of ideological similarites, but also in terms of capitalist conflict and its management. Instead of a simple adding up of popular and elite right-wing tendencies, I will demonstrate how, in the case of the forex mortgage crisis and its state management, popular social claims were used in a shift towards authoritarian management of capitalist crisis, similar to the dynamics Nicos Poulantzas described in his seminal analysis of the phases of state transformation in the lead-up to fascism.

Conference topic

Panel no. 20 - Contesting Household Debt: Politics, Infrapolitics, and the Political Economy of Debtor-Creditor Relations

Preferred format

Oral



#320 Ethno-medicinal practices and socio-cultural beliefs on reproductive healthcare among the tribal communities in India

Madhulika Sahoo from IN (madhulika.sahoo@hotmail.co.uk) (VIT-AP University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Ethno-medicinal practices and socio-cultural beliefs on reproductive healthcare among the tribal communities in India

Abstract text

The Lancet series on indigenous health discussed the integration of western and traditional health; it identifies the importance of its integration for betterment. Furthermore, the international forum for indigenous people also acknowledges that without the indigenous peoples’ knowledge, the modern world might not be able to understand the full value of the ecosystem for health and medicine. There is a need for studies and documentation towards conservation of time tested knowledge, beliefs and practices related to traditional healthcare system. The traditional healthcare beliefs and practices of tribals are different from the modern scientific worldview and emerge from their living in forests rich with medicinal plants. This belief and healing system has a strong influence on the healthcare practices, health-seeking behavior and choices among tribal people. This paper discusses the traditional healthcare practices and socio-cultural beliefs for reproductive healthcare among the Indian tribes. The paper is divided into two sections on the first sections it gives an overview of the ethno-medicinal medicinal practices and socio-cultural beliefs among the tribes in Odisha and Chhattisgarh state in India. The second, section describes the impact of development induced displacement on the traditional medicinal practices.

Conference topic

Panel no. 58 - Coming of Age for the Traditional Medicine System of Indigenous Populations: Is Connecting the Unconnected the Way Forward?

Preferred format

Oral



#321 “Make them invisible… and then they actually disappear”: The impact of everyday bordering on young refugees’ post-compulsory education in Greece

Lucy Hunt from GB (lucy.hunt@ssho.ox.ac.uk) (University of Oxford)



Abstract

Abstract title

“Make them invisible… and then they actually disappear”: The impact of everyday bordering on young refugees’ post-compulsory education in Greece

Abstract text

This paper addresses the social consequences of the financial and ‘refugee’ crises in Greece, and particularly how they impact the post-compulsory (15+) educational trajectories of young refugees and asylum seekers in the country. It argues that even after youth have been permitted entry to the country and the space of the high school or university - including in legal frameworks - they still exist in a ‘gray space’ (Yiftachel, 2009) in which they are subject to everyday bordering practices (Yuval-Davis, Wemyss & Cassidy, 2018). In this paper, it is argued that these bordering practices (attempt to) govern young refugees’ visibility and voice – rendering them ‘hypervisible’, invisible and/or silent – and as such, constitute subtle but powerful forms of exclusion. These can cause young refugees to feel unwelcome and unable to participate, resulting in them dropping out and/or readjusting their ambitions. The paper aims to make these bordering processes visible and highlight young refugees’ methods of overcoming them: such as by (collectively) seeking out alternative educational spaces which allow them to be seen and heard as they wish. In doing so, it builds on recent work which explores how everyday borders are created, maintained and overcome in education; how schools function as ‘borderlands’; and how educational staff can act as gatekeepers to the new society (e.g. Feuerverger, 2011; Pace, 2017; Oliver & Hughes, 2018). It is based on data generated over eight months of ethnographic doctoral fieldwork with refugees in Thessaloniki, involving participant observation as a volunteer teacher.

Conference topic

Panel no. 108 - Refuge Refugees and Forced Migration

Preferred format

Oral



#322 AnthroSchools: Reflections on Anthropology and Widening Participation in the UK

Adam Runacres from GB (adam.runacres.15@ucl.ac.uk) (University College London)



Abstract

Abstract title

AnthroSchools: Reflections on Anthropology and Widening Participation in the UK

Abstract text

Widening participation (WP) is an increasingly important agenda within UK higher education (HE), as universities and charities aim to improve access to universities for disadvantaged groups across all parts of society. While the majority of WP initiatives are based in centralised university offices, a growing number of individual academic departments are building their own outreach programmes, hoping to attract talented students to join their programmes and study their discipline by capitalising on their subject knowledge and academic expertise. Based on my experience within a departmental WP initiative called AnthroSchools, in this paper, I will reflect on the challenges of anthropological outreach in the UK context and what an anthropological approach to WP can contribute to the sector as a whole. In 2020, the realities of a global pandemic, increasing inequality and racial injustice have made it a watershed year for the HE sector to address fundamental structural and cultural issues that are contributing to 1) the growing attainment gap between students from different ethnic backgrounds 2) the demand for more flexible learning and 3) a clearer answer to the question, “why go to university?”. I argue that anthropology is uniquely well-placed to provide a culturally sensitive and empirically informed understanding of the challenges that students face and the ways in which academics, WP practitioners and teachers can establish an educational dialogue to solve them. However, to do this, the discipline first has to build its own approach to WP and recognise its own limitations regarding its problematic history.

Conference topic

Panel no. 54 - What Can Anthropology Offer and What Can It Receive from the New Generations? How to Set up a Bottom-Up Teaching and a Bidirectional Relationship

Preferred format

Oral



#323 Reconciling Differences and the Challenges of Building Anthropology into English School Subjects

Adam Runacres from GB (adam.runacres.15@ucl.ac.uk) (UCL) , Remi Davis from GB (remi.davis.20@ucl.ac.uk) (UCL)



Abstract

Abstract title

Reconciling Differences and the Challenges of Building Anthropology into English School Subjects

Abstract text

Anthropology is currently only available at the secondary school level in England via the International Baccalaureate since the discontinuation of A-level Anthropology in 2018. This presents a challenge for anthropology educators, academics and outreach professionals who are witnessing the increasing value of anthropological knowledges and methodologies in the corporate world, charity sector and society at large. The triple crises of health, economy and racial discrimination illuminated in 2020 have only accelerated the potential contributions of anthropology in the public sphere, yet anthropology remains relatively unknown at the school level in England. So how can we encourage anthropological skills and knowledges to prepare students for the challenges that lie ahead? In this paper, we reflect on our experience of a leading anthropological schools outreach programme focused on building links between anthropology and non-anthropology A-level subjects through specific curriculum-based interventions. We explore where anthropology can make specific interventions, what the limitations of those interventions are and what future tactics may be important to encourage the next generation of anthropological thinkers despite the absence of anthropology at schools. In particular, the paper acts as an anthropological call to arms in light of the growing critiques of A-level curricula and the desperate need for their decolonisation.

Conference topic

Panel no. 60 - Anthropology as Education. Exploring Practices and Opportunities to Employ Anthropology in the Formation of the Citizens and the Professionals of the Future

Preferred format

Oral



#324 Observation, measurement and knowledge: operationalising One Health among nomadic pastoral communities in Northern Kenya

Erika Grasso from IT (erika.grasso@unito.it) (University of Turin, CCM) , Elena Comino from IT (elena.comino@polito.it) (Politecnico of Turin) , Tamara Littamè from KE (coord.oh.ken@ccm-italia.org) (CCM) , Maurice Kiboye from KE (mkiboye@vsfg.org) (VSF Germany) , Micol Fascendini from LA (micol.fascendini@gmail.com) (CCM) , Elena Isotta Cristofori from IT (elena.cristofori@trimweb.it) (TRIM)



Abstract

Abstract title

Observation, measurement and knowledge: operationalising One Health among nomadic pastoral communities in Northern Kenya

Abstract text

This presentation grounds on “Multidisciplinary approach to promote the health and resilience of pastoralist communities in North Kenya” project, implemented in North Horr Sub-County (Marsabit County, Kenya), by a consortium of NGOs (Comitato Collaborazione Medica and Veterinaires Sans Frontieres-Germany), private actors (Translate into Meaning) and academic institutions (University of Turin). The project builds on One Health (OH) that, recognising the interconnection between humans, animals and the environment, proposes a multidisciplinary approach to address the health threats at the human-animal-environment interface. It aims to contribute to the debate on climate change effects on nomadic people. It is implemented among semi-nomadic pastoralists who inhabit Northern Kenya where a profound change in climate patterns deeply affects availability of resources. The research conducted by an anthropologist integrated the monitoring practices of animal and human diseases, resources status and maintenance and rainfall and temperature data. An ongoing dialogue among technical experts, local staff and pastoral communities shapes fieldwork activities; whereas the ethnographic methods help involving the local communities and promoting a process to support decisions, based on the integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data that are collected at community level using traditional and modern tools. Indeed, the process requires a strong collaboration among international organizations, academic community, private sector, local institutions and communities to develop common strategies that reduce vulnerability. This transdisciplinary approach is key in building synergies in skills, innovative interventions and responses,in order to improve capacity to cope with the ordinary challenges and extraordinary crises within a sceptic ecological and social environment.

Conference topic

Panel no. 17 - Nomadic Landscapes in Waiting: Exploring Forms of Engagement with a Changing Earth

Preferred format

Oral



#325 Enduring relations? Imagining kinship and coupledom in age-dissimilar unions

Lara McKenzie from AU (lara.mckenzie@uwa.edu.au) (The University of Western Australia)



Abstract

Abstract title

Enduring relations? Imagining kinship and coupledom in age-dissimilar unions

Abstract text

Theorisations of love and kinship frequently emphasise cultural change. Globally, but particularly in the Global North, anthropologists and sociologists posit the growing idealisation of romantic love and family relations; greater personal autonomy and choice in forming and leaving relationships; and the entanglement of relationships with ideas and realities of democracy, individualism, neoliberalism, and capitalism. A common suggestion is that companionship, obligation, and commitment to kin and non-kin are increasingly losing out to individualised relationships and short-term pleasure. Drawing on research with heterosexual, age-dissimilar couples in Australia, and in-depth interviews in particular, in this paper I argue that, alongside autonomy and free choice, commitment and obligation remain enduring themes in how people imagine their love lives. The growth and apparent acceptance of age-dissimilar couplings has often been seen as reflecting shifts to less enduring relations. These couples are imagined as typifying a shift to autonomy in relationships, and a willingness to leave relationships if they are unsatisfying (for instance, if one partner reaches old age and requires care). Such relationships, in some cases, reveal a view of relations as temporary, yet in unexpected ways. They show couples’ expectations regarding their close family. Many interviewees spoke of how they had cut off or limited contact with parents, siblings, or friends due to their lack of ‘support’ for their age-dissimilar unions. Unions themselves were imagined to be ideally enduring, but contingent on love. Relationships that ended were explained as never having been ‘loving’. Kin and non-kin relationships were accordingly prioritised and dismissed.

Conference topic

Panel no. 84 - Imagine Kinship!

Preferred format

Oral



#326 Rabies is not a disease. Faith and traditional healers talking about rabies vaccination in rural India.

Deborah Nadal from GB (nadal.deborah@gmail.com) (University of Glasgow)



Abstract

Abstract title

Rabies is not a disease. Faith and traditional healers talking about rabies vaccination in rural India.

Abstract text

Rabies is the most lethal infectious disease on Earth and, when it becomes clinically diagnosable, it is incurable. Only preventive dog vaccination and post-exposure human vaccination can stop its spreading and save human and animal lives. In India, rabies kills about 21.000 people a year, more than in any other country. In rural Gujarat, a “Mother of rabies”, Hadkai Mata, is worshipped by some socially and economically marginalized communities who, in case of a dog bite, rush to her temples to seek protection from infection. Even though provisional research shows that faith/traditional medicine and biomedicine do not necessarily exclude each other in this context, the way rabies is understood at Hadkai Mata temples is hardly reconcilable with the concept of prevention through dog vaccination and immediate post-exposure human vaccination. For Hadkai Mata believers, people who suffer from abysmal caste-based discrimination, poverty and health inequality, dog bites and rabies have a morally and socially normative function that intersects only very marginally with the biomedical understanding and management of viral infection. In this socio-cultural milieu, the challenge lies in eliminating rabies deaths through vaccination but, at the same time, saving the meaning of Hadkai Mata for her believers and the role she plays in alleviating the burden they bear as a resource-limited ostracized community.

Conference topic

Panel no. 58 - Coming of Age for the Traditional Medicine System of Indigenous Populations: Is Connecting the Unconnected the Way Forward?

Preferred format

Oral



#327 Teaching ANTH 101 beyond walls, borders, and ideologies: The past and future of anth101.com

Michael Wesch from US (mike.wesch@gmail.com) (Kansas State University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Teaching ANTH 101 beyond walls, borders, and ideologies: The past and future of anth101.com

Abstract text

Five years ago Ryan Klataske and I set out to create a free and open resource for teaching anthropology, ANTH101.com. The site includes a full online textbook, original videos, podcasts, innovative “challenge” assignments, and curated digital materials - providing a free alternative to expensive Introduction to Cultural Anthropology texts. The challenges of creating this resource reflect the broader challenges of anthropology as a discipline: what is the “right” story of humanity? How should we frame, represent, and discuss cultures? How do we represent unsettled high-stakes cultural debates around race, gender, poverty, and oppression? And how do we frame politically divisive and pressing global issues? Such questions have to be carefully considered and debated with every word of the textbook, every link curated, and every assignment created. And deciding what is “right” on each issue is not enough, for then the really hard work begins of crafting a narrative that is convincing and compelling enough to engage, educate, and perhaps even transform a student audience that is now immersed in a dazzling, distracting, and divisive mediated world. With the site now used by over 200 faculty, thousands of students, and over two million viewers on YouTube, the material has been exposed to a wide range of different political and cultural viewpoints that we did not consider in our original vision. In this presentation, I will discuss our future plans which will attempt to transcend borders and ideologies in much the same way that anthropology as a discipline must also transform.

Conference topic

Panel no. 41 - Technology: Teaching and Learning Anthropology Around the World

Preferred format

Oral



#328 Few successful, many mobiles. Transnational return, ongoing mobility, and social differentiation in Romania

Remus Gabriel Anghel from RO (remusgabriel@yahoo.com) (ISPMN)



Abstract

Abstract title

Few successful, many mobiles. Transnational return, ongoing mobility, and social differentiation in Romania

Abstract text

Recent research has brought anew interests in researching and understanding current patterns of return migration and its consequences. Drawing on one fieldwork location in Romania, a small city in the southern Transylvania, this paper investigates the types of return processes occurring in a context of strong process of emigration and looks into the consequences of these return processes on local social stratification. The paper first assesses such return processes as transnational return, aiming at capturing returnees’ transnational involvements and migration projects. It secondly analyses what sort of inequality emerges within different types of returnees and why some returnees are becoming important economic actors while the role of others is less important, some aiming at obtaining jobs on the labor market. In order to answer this question, I first assess how returnees aim to use the resources they have at disposal and use their migratory experience. In this respect I contend that context plays a structuring role on how returnees fare. Accordingly, I secondly ask how contexts influence returnees over the years differentiating between contexts when economy was collapsing, one in which poverty was widespread and one in which development is strongly in the rise.

Conference topic

Panel no. 87 - Capitalizing Return. Remigrants and Transnational Networks as Significant Actors of Change

Preferred format

Oral



#329 Raising Our Voices – AAA’s 2020 Virtual Event Series and its Implications for Quality, Breadth, Accessibility and Sustainability

Edward Liebow from US (eliebow@americananthro.org) (American Anthropological Association) , Nate Wambold from US (nwambold@americananthro.org) (American Anthropological Association) , Daniel Ginsberg from US (dginsberg@americananthro.org) (American Anthropological Association) , Nell Koneczny from US (nkoneczny@americananthro.org) (American Anthropological Association)



Abstract

Abstract title

Raising Our Voices – AAA’s 2020 Virtual Event Series and its Implications for Quality, Breadth, Accessibility and Sustainability

Abstract text

From the Association’s perspective, one of our key responsibilities is to advance the field of anthropology by applying our “super powers,” including the power to convene anthropologists for the purposes of intellectual exchange, teaching and learning, and professional development. When we cancelled our in-place meeting this past fall, and produced instead the “Raising Our Voices” virtual event series, we experimented with design features that would help us adhere to four core values (1) quality (both intellectual content – originality and rigor – and logistical execution); (2) breadth (encompassing the full range of anthropology’s sprawling intellectual terrain); (3) accessibility (in terms of both interactive design and affordability); and (4) sustainability (ensuring the resources that sustain the AAA’s service to its members and the discipline). This presentation will highlight what we observed concerning the potential for extending affordable access to members who might otherwise not participate, as well as observations about the appropriate range and types of presentation formats to accommodate students and professionals working in academic and practice settings, the appropriate range and types of professional development opportunities to offer through workshops and other activities, effective ways of reducing our carbon footprint while maintaining member engagement, how best to balance the Meeting’s contributions to Association finances with equitable and affordable member engagement, and ways that technological affordances can strengthen the relationships among anthropologists and representatives from the interlocutors and communities with which we work.

Conference topic

Panel no. 41 - Technology: Teaching and Learning Anthropology Around the World

Preferred format

Oral



#331 Health transition and paradigm shift in Brazil: The immunosuppression versus immunostimulation debate on the internet

Márcio Vilar from DE (vilar@soz.uni-frankfurt.de) (Goethe University Frankfurt)



Abstract

Abstract title

Health transition and paradigm shift in Brazil: The immunosuppression versus immunostimulation debate on the internet

Abstract text

Strengthening one’s immune system belong to the current recommendations made by specialists to prevent multiple illnesses, and several products and habits have been encouraged to keep one’s body healthy. Nevertheless, when it comes to treat people with autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes, lupus, arthritis etc., which are part of the non-communicable diseases (NCDs), there is great medical scepticism regarding immunostimulation. Once immunosuppression is the backbone of established paradigm in fields like rheumatology, immunostimulation-based therapies tend to be marginalized when they are proposed to become authorized. Yet, immunostimulation lies at the heart of regenerative medicine. Given that, is it possible for immunostimulation, not only as preventive policy but also as a legitimate way to tackle autoimmunity, to emerge as a significant factor for health transition? To reflect on it, I present and analyse an online discussion forum initiated in 2008, in Brazil, to deliberate on the efficacy of an immunostimulating drug for autoimmunity whose manufacturing, commercialization and distribution was forbidden in 2005. In it, strangers from distinct localities discussed about the ‘vaccine’ (the drug in question). Participants promoted or warned against it, reported on theirs and other’s personal experiences with it, detailing its application and sharing contacts of related physicians and relevant internet links (e.g. a petition for its regularization), etc. Particularly, informed by fieldwork activities conducted in intercalated periods since 2009, I analyse whether forum participants, by enacting a biopolitics from below, managed to (re)create and/or expand informal adoption spaces for immunostimulation as potential medical future.

Conference topic

Panel no. 77 - Health Transition in Modern Societies

Preferred format

Oral



#333 Resistance, Empowerment, and Cultural Politics: Female Indigenous Textile Producers in Guatemala

Sonia Chinn from US (schinn@thevillageschool.com) (The Village School)



Abstract

Abstract title

Resistance, Empowerment, and Cultural Politics: Female Indigenous Textile Producers in Guatemala

Abstract text

Guatemala is one of the poorest countries in Central America with limited economic opportunities for women, especially indigenous ones. The largest indigenous group in Guatemala is Maya, where women face a high rate of poverty, racism, and gendered violence. However, in such a challenging environment, female textile artisans have formed cooperatives that target both local and international customers. By doing so, textile producers implicitly and explicitly participate in cultural politics by advocating for indigenous production and consumption. Moreover, indigenous epistemologies take center stage in weaving communities that have led to political and social activism. Thus artisans are making textiles as well as making meaning of their lives. This presentation will examine the pivotal role of indigenous Guatemalan textile artisans in facilitating economic empowerment while engaging in resistance against racial injustices.

Conference topic

Panel no. 06 - Feminist-inspired Activist Imaginaries for Making Change: Social Making Legacies and Methodological Framings

Preferred format

Oral



#334 Children’s participation in ritual and religious life: between instituted role and innovative involvement

Marie Daugey from BE (mdaugey@uliege.be) (F.R.S.-F.N.R.S, Liège University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Children’s participation in ritual and religious life: between instituted role and innovative involvement

Abstract text

Children’s participation in religious activities remains little studied. Using ethnographic materials collected in Togo, among the Kabye population, I will show that taking an interest in it can nevertheless contribute to understanding both certain modalities of the sustainability of social and religious organization and the adaptations of religious practices that reflect social changes. To make evident these two aspects of children’s participation in religion, I will first explain how the symbolic representations associated with children can give them a capital role in seasonal or funeral rites that are considered to support the renewal and perpetuation of living conditions favorable to the group on a given territory: some of them then play a major role as ritual officiants. Secondly, I will analyze different ritual contexts in which children are actors of certain ritual adaptations: during seasonal rites, they replace adult participants who are absent because they have migrated or lose interest in these rites because of their conversion to Christianity. Whereas they were formerly considered statutorily unfit to participate in these rites, children are now considered sufficiently "intelligent" because of their schooling. A hybridization of rites can also sometimes be observed when young girls introduce certain Christian songs in an initiatory setting. Flexibility in the rules of the rites is allowed, at the initiative of adults or children, insofar as it favors the sustainability of the ritual system.

Conference topic

Panel no. 03 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#335 The alter-temporalities of pastoral mobility: The case of the Rabari pastoralists of western India

Natasha Maru from GB (n.maru@ids.ac.uk) (Institute of Development Studies)



Abstract

Abstract title

The alter-temporalities of pastoral mobility: The case of the Rabari pastoralists of western India

Abstract text

Mobility is widely debated to be the key strategy that allows pastoralists to flexibly make use of variable resources. But while mobility is a function of both time and space, discussions have tended to favour spatial trajectories revealing a sedentary bias. Based on ethnographic research with the Rabari pastoralists of western India, this paper highlights the salience of timing and temporality and provides new insights into the experiences of pastoral mobility. Observing the Rabari reveals various circuits of mobility, involving not just tasks associated with livestock keeping, but also social, political and religious obligations and desires, aspirations, and imaginations. These (im)mobilities lie at the intersection of temporal phenomena such as shifting weather patterns, increasingly short and intensive agrarian cycles, and uncertain market dynamics in a developmentalist political economy that is transforming not only the physical but also the social landscape within which the Rabari are located. But by relying on embedded, localized and alternative understandings of timing and temporality the pastoralists rupture the linear, scientific, and fast-paced chronology that underpins the ideas of improved productivity, progress and modernity symbolized by such transformations. The pastoralists manoeuvre between the various circuits of (im)mobilities tangibly, in imagination or representation to generate ‘alter-temporalities’ (Kolinjivadi, 2020) or ‘alter-politics’ (Ciavolella, 2019) that do not simply oppose or conform to their changing context but dialectically engage with it. Paying attention to such temporalities reveals new dimensions of pastoral mobility as well as advances our understanding of mobility as a theoretical concept in itself.

Conference topic

Panel no. 10 - Lost in Representation: Changes and Paradoxes in the Nomads' Life

Preferred format

Oral



#336 Transformative Encounters: Guided tours and guidebooks as tools to move beyond multicultural tolerance

Francesco Vietti from IT (francesco.vietti@unimib.it) (University of Milan Bicocca) , Meghann Ormond from NL (meghann.ormond@wur.nl) (Wageningen University & Research)



Abstract

Abstract title

Transformative Encounters: Guided tours and guidebooks as tools to move beyond multicultural tolerance

Abstract text

In bringing people together that otherwise might have little more than passing contact with one another, tourism has been widely appreciated for its educational potential to transform mindsets by exposing both ‘tourists’ and ‘locals’ to diverse perspectives on, and ways of living in, the world. While acknowledging tourism’s role in marginalising, objectifying, exploiting and exoticising immigrants’ bodies, labour and heritages, we also recognise its potential as a critical pedagogical tool in civic initiatives seeking to transcend the limits of tolerance discourse in order reduce growing xenophobia and anti-immigrant sentiment. Our contribution explores to what extent guided tours and travel guidebooks can effectively be used to move beyond the treatment of one another as ideal types and instead to foster Arendt's notion of 'visiting' as a form of civic learning. We draw on our experiences with two Europe-based global citizenship-inspired initiatives that bring together migration and tourism in novel ways – 'Migrantour' guided walking tours and the 'Roots Guide' travel guidebook – in order to reflect on the representational and structural opportunities and challenges these initiatives and the pedagogical formats they assume have encountered as they work to foster greater recognition of common ground between people of diverse backgrounds, confronting and reshaping dominant narratives that frame immigrants’ lives and heritages as dissonant to dominant local and national identities.

Conference topic

Panel no. 71 - Encounters Across Difference: Moving Beyond Dark Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#338 Journeys of Mahaprasad : Global Flows and Refiguring Food and Ritual in Odisha, India

Nilika Mehrotra from IN (nilika@jnu.ac.in) (Jawaharlal Nehru University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Journeys of Mahaprasad : Global Flows and Refiguring Food and Ritual in Odisha, India

Abstract text

A strong relationship between food and ritual has existed in Puri, Odisha, one of the most important pilgrim places in India’s sacred Hindu Geography. The food offering made to Lord Jagannath is transformed as Mahaprasad, greatly valued by Odiyas and other devout Hindus. The Jagannath temple entails the distribution and sale of both dry and wet prasad for thousands of pilgrims daily. This paper charts out how in a recent years, Mahaprasad has started to travel wide and far as it has acquired a form of a commercial food. Technologies of travel, packaging and deliveries have ensured that the devotees are able to access and savour it without visiting Puri. Mahaprasad has become an important part of feasts on occasions of Death and Marriages of the elite. It is interesting to note how sacred mingles with the profane, vegetarian with non vegetarian and so on. In the process Mahaprasad acquires a life of its own. Sensorial, dietary and sacred injunctions shape the way this prasad is savoured and religious faith is reinforced. Renewal of ritual order implicates the sacred through transmission of substances embodying the divine blessings and global flows sustain sociality and religiosity.

Conference topic

Panel no. 104 - Performing Substances, Transmitting Legacies

Preferred format

Oral



#339 « I‘VE MADE THE STREET MY HOME »: DEVIANT ENTREPRENARIAL JOURNEY OF ILLEGALIZED SUB-SAHARAN MIGRANTS WITHIN EUROPEAN MOBILITY REGIMES

Louis Vuilleumier from CH (louis.vuilleumier@unifr.ch) (University of Fribourg)



Abstract

Abstract title

« I‘VE MADE THE STREET MY HOME »: DEVIANT ENTREPRENARIAL JOURNEY OF ILLEGALIZED SUB-SAHARAN MIGRANTS WITHIN EUROPEAN MOBILITY REGIMES

Abstract text

European mobility regimes sort un/desired migrants through sets of precarious administrative statuses, which are translated into limited access to resources, most notably the formal labor market. Those temporal ruptures interrupt individual biographies and hinder the hopes of a young population seeking a better future. However, impoverished young migrants are creative and find ways to navigate those structural constraints. Facing enduring unemployment, some find autonomy in criminality and start a deviant entrepreneurial journey by engaging in low-level street drug dealing. Drawing from the trajectories of precarious migrants, I use biographical analysis and participant observations of a squatting mobilization in a Swiss city to explore the strategies of illegalized migrants to negotiate their deviant entrepreneurial journey despite daily face-to-face encounters with state authorities and police officers. Confronted with routinized forms of repression, illegalized migrants have to actively develop, maintain, and mobilize their local networks in order to carry on their deviant activity. Navigating spaces of asymmetrical power relationships, I demonstrate how their networking strategies oscillate between practices of appropriation, resistance, and conciliation. Neither victimizing nor romanticizing deviance, this paper offers an ethnographic analysis of an impoverished population's capacities to challenge mobility regimes that try to constrain their movements and their opportunities by creating spaces of narrowed autonomy.

Conference topic

Panel no. 09 - Youth, Crime and Marginality in Europe and Beyond

Preferred format

Oral



#340 HANGING AROUND ON AND OFFLINE: BETWEEN THE ESCAPE FROM SOCIAL CONTROL AND NEW FORMS OF SURVEILLANCE

Barbara Turk Niskač from SI (barbara.turk-niskac@zrc-sazu.si) (ZRC SAZU)



Abstract

Abstract title

HANGING AROUND ON AND OFFLINE: BETWEEN THE ESCAPE FROM SOCIAL CONTROL AND NEW FORMS OF SURVEILLANCE

Abstract text

When compulsory schooling was introduced in the 19th century as a means of discipline within a new work ethic that emerged in the moral discourse of increasing productivity, idleness and wandering were seen as threats, and children and young people had to be disciplined to do productive work and use their time effectively (Foucault 1995). On the other hand, the digital revolution is breaking down the division between work and leisure, public and private spheres, and introduces new forms of surveillance. It also introduces new forms of work that, while not work in the traditional sense, constitute a new system of capital accumulation in which algorithms continuously mine behavioral data (Zuboff 2019). Based on my research on the experiences of students in Slovenia aged nine to fifteen hanging out with their friends in the physical world, such as wandering and socializing, and their engagement with social media, I propose that both experiences potentially share the characteristics of aimlessness, fun, sociability, and escape from social norms and adult supervision. Moreover, virtual and physical space are often intertwined in their everyday experiences. Yet, new forms of discipline and surveillance in the digital age need to be further examined especially in the midst of the COVID -19 epidemic when distance learning made engagement in cyberspace with videoconference school lessons and other online interactive tools a duty, a new kind of work. At the same time, both leisure and socialization activities became increasingly confined to the same digital realm.

Conference topic

Panel no. 03 – Miscellaneous

Preferred format

Oral



#341 Small-scale entrepreneurship among return migrants in Romania

Alin Croitoru from RO (alin.croitoru@ulbsibiu.ro) (Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu) , Anatolie Coșciug from RO (anatolie.cosciug@ulbsibiu.ro) (Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu)



Abstract

Abstract title

Small-scale entrepreneurship among return migrants in Romania

Abstract text

The study examines pathways towards entrepreneurship among Romanian return migrants. The general context is provided by the unprecedented two-way migration between Romania and other European countries and an increased heterogeneity in terms of motivations for emigration and return migration as well. During the last decades, this new reality embeds larger categories of Romanian population who lived longer or shorter periods abroad and returned in Romania (some of them with open-ended return projects). Building on the literature which emphasises the importance of the migration experience in individuals’ work trajectories and employment decisions, we analyse which are the main predictors for Romanian return migrants’ entrepreneurship. In order to reveal migrants’ probability to engage into entrepreneurship upon return, the analytical model includes variables linked to accumulation of economic resources through migration, enhancement of human capital during the time spent abroad, as well as adjustments of their social capital. In addition, in-depth interviews emphasize several intricacies of the relationship between former experiences of migration, entrepreneurial projects developed after return, and prospective migration. Combining quantitative and qualitative data, the study illustrates two different profiles of return migrants in entrepreneurship and provides a focused comparison between returnees who are business owners and those in self-employment after return in Romania.

Conference topic

Panel no. 87 - Capitalizing Return. Remigrants and Transnational Networks as Significant Actors of Change

Preferred format

Oral



#342 Non-Western epistemology and Decolonizing Peace Education in World Anthropology : The example of two Diaspora Communities

Alexander Horstmann from DE (alexander.horstmann@tlu.ee) (Tallinn University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Non-Western epistemology and Decolonizing Peace Education in World Anthropology : The example of two Diaspora Communities

Abstract text

In this paper, I like to draw on 2 examples: One in Shingal, Northern Iraq, the other in Karen state, in Eastern Myanmar, to explore the possibility of world anthropology that is sensitive to and involves local communities in a Non-Western context throughout the research. I want to express the case-study of two communities- Yazid and Karen- who had to flee from violence and political persecution and who organized to help their communities from the Diaspora. World anthropology would also have an applied face: How would world anthropology be able to make people´s voices heard, and how could peace education be decolonized. How can the intervention be designed in a way to support refugee communities in trauma therapy, resilience, reconstruction, and in future-crafting?

Conference topic

Panel no. 110 - Next Generation Anthropology: Cosmopolitanian Anthropology, World Anthropology, World Anthropologies, Trans-national Anthropology, or Something Else?

Preferred format

Oral



#343 Traditional alimentation system of Sicily and its role in the nations identity

Oxana D. Fais-Leutskaia from RU (civetcs@gmail.com) (Russian Academy of Sciences)



Abstract

Abstract title

Traditional alimentation system of Sicily and its role in the nations identity

Abstract text

The traditional Sicilian cuisine is one of the most conservative and peculiar in Europe. It retains unaltered some ancient alimentary matrices dating back to antiquity and early medieval times (which is evident from the recipes and the role of archaic sweets a legacy left by Arab dominance in 9-11c) and preserves in their pure form individual ethnic components of the local cuisine (Ancient Greek, Arab, Berber, Jewish, Spanish etc). This alimentary system, both festive and casual, has to this day not lost its class distinctions which originated in the Middle Ages, whereby each of the sub-cuisines represents a particular social class and is associated with certain traditions, restrictions and socially determined alimentary behaviour. Besides, the Sicilian alimentary system which involves consuming exclusively «prodotto nostrano» (our product) is among the most sustainable in Europe. Of all the Italian regional cuisines it is the least open to innovations and, conversely, tends to be extremely selective and adapt everything in the local style. As shown by author’s field studies conducted over many years, the preservation and reproduction of the local cuisine in the realm of tradition does not only take place automatically due to the conservatism of the Sicilian society, but is also encouraged by all social stratas which see the local alimentary system as a distinguishing feature of Sicilian uniqueness, a way to consolidate as a group, as well as the ground for contrasting Italy and Sicily and building self-identity as a nation («We are a nation because we have our cuisine»).

Conference topic

Panel no. 23 - Mediterranean Foodscapes: (New) Models of Sociability and Sustainability

Preferred format

Oral



#344 Not-so-empty meeting grounds. Encounters across difference in the informal tourism sector in India

Natalia Bloch from PL (nbloch@amu.edu.pl) (Adam Mickiewicz University)



Abstract

Abstract title

Not-so-empty meeting grounds. Encounters across difference in the informal tourism sector in India

Abstract text

Kristin Lozanski, in her paper “Defining ‘Real India’: Representations of Authenticity in Independent Travel” (2010), argues that the natives whom tourists want to “befriend” cannot be just any natives – relationship with tourism service providers will be seen as commercial and thus “unauthentic”. As a result tourism workers become “invisible” to tourists, because “their invisibility is (…) critical to maintaining the semblance of non-commodification” (2010: 754–55). My fieldwork, conducted in the informal tourism sector in India, did not however confirm these observations. My research partners who offer goods and services to tourists were very successful in building meaningful relationships with them, despite the service provider–customer framework. Secondly, according to Lozanski, it is not only tourism workers who do not satisfy the tourist desire for authenticity, but also those locals who resemble the tourists too much in terms of class, mobility, and cosmopolitanism. Also this claim was not confirmed by my research. The high level of intercultural competence of tourism workers and their cosmopolitism arose from “travelling-in-dwelling” (Clifford 1992) did not affect their authenticity in the eyes of tourists, but rather facilitated the establishment of interpersonal relations. In this paper I want to focus on structural conditions which need to be met in order to let encounters "across difference" (Tsing 2005) happen. I argue that it is particularly the framework of the informal tourism sector that creates heterogeneous, open-ended tourist spaces and provides relatively broad, democratic access to them, allowing for development of unmediated relations and the possibilities they bear.

Conference topic

Panel no. 71 - Encounters Across Difference: Moving Beyond Dark Anthropology

Preferred format

Oral



#345 The role of parents in exercising the participatory rights of the child

Davorka Osmak-Franjić from HR (davorka.osmakf@dijete.hr) (Ombudsman for Children of the Republic of Croatia)



Abstract

Abstract title

The role of parents in exercising the participatory rights of the child

Abstract text

The right of the child to participate is one of the fundamental principles of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. According to Article 12 “States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child,…” Adults have a very important role in creating conditions for the realization of children's participatory rights, in all areas of the child's life (in the family, educational institutions, organizations dealing with the protection and promotion of children's rights, the local community, national and international level). The responsibility of adults is to create an atmosphere in which the child will feel that his or her participation is welcome, safe and voluntary for the child, and that adults are genuinely interested in hearing what the child has to say. Their responsibility is to give feedback to the children on how their participation has influenced any outcomes. In the presentation, we will discuss the role and contribution of parents in exercising the participatory rights of members of the Network of Young Advisors to the Ombudsman for Children of the Republic of Croatia - a standing advisory body to the Ombudsman for Children consisting of 20 children aged 12 to 18. We will also address the role that parents can play in situations where children are invited to participate in research aimed at gaining a better insight into the way children exercise their rights.

Conference topic

Panel no. 75 - Legacies and Next Generation Parenting

Preferred format

Oral



#346 Online Sources for Translating Anthropology into Teacher Education - Insights and Outcomes from a European educational anthropological research project

Christa Markom from AT (christa.markom@univie.ac.at) (University of Vienna) , Jelena Tosic from CH (jelena.tosic@unisg.ch) (University St. Gallen)



Abstract

Abstract title

Online Sources for Translating Anthropology into Teacher Education - Insights and Outcomes from a European educational anthropological research project

Abstract text

Teacher education is a sphere crucial for framing future generations of teachers, citizens and thus society as a whole. There is a pronounced diversity of how teacher education is structured in different European countries, especially with regards to ways in which anthropological knowledge is (not) part of the teacher education curricula and subjects. In our paper we will present a multilingual (English, German, Danish, Greek, Croatian) and multimodal online project platform we designed together with teachers with the aim to accommodate the diversity and particularities of teacher education in Europe (focus: Northern, Central and Southeastern Europe). The paper will present two core and interrelated modes of knowledge part of the online platform (a Concept Book to make anthropological concepts and perspectives accessible to teacher educators, teachers and pedagogues alike and a Whiteboard Animation on the topic "Worldmaking") by focusing on their development together with teachers and their subsequent evaluation by teachers of different profiles (with and without anthropological training). The paper will offer the opportunity to discuss digital accessibility of anthropological knowledge across two different modes of knowledge transmission - text/concepts and whiteboard animation. (www.transca.net)

Conference topic

Panel no. 41 - Technology: Teaching and Learning Anthropology Around the World

Preferred format

Oral



#347 Patterns of entrepreneurial culture: How happy can an entrepreneurial, self-initiative and creative person be?

Boštjan Kravanja from SI (bostjan.kravanja@ff.uni-lj.si) (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts)



Abstract

Abstract title

Patterns of entrepreneurial culture: How happy can an entrepreneurial, self-initiative and creative person be?

Abstract text

Paraphrasing the Culture and Personality's configurationism, the lecture will focus on the recent trends of promoting values of entrepreneurship, self-initiative and creativity that are featured in the programs of various development, youth, pedagogic and employment institutions. Apart from the question of how the entrepreneurial culture is "patterned" as a space for happy and self-accomplished personalities of the future, the lecture will tackle the anthropological notions of happiness and good life in general. Considering that these two concepts are not mutually interchangeable, the patterning of entrepreneurial culture addresses either personal happiness by means of positive psychology or good life by means of personal business success. Hence, the issue of personal happiness of this imagined and idealized entrepreneurial personality is an interesting question, which can be examined comparatively within various patterns of entrepreneurial culture for the future generations of entrepreneurs. Even though the main problem of the configurationism approach in Culture and Personality tradition was unchangeability of culture and unproblematic transmission of its core values on its members, the idea of configuration itself seems well and alive in today's youth management. While stimulating young people's self-initiative and creativity is promoted as an essential feature of shaping the future entrepreneurial environments, the production of their happiness is left to themselves, or, for better or worse, to entertainment industry, supported by information technologies. The lecture is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in fall 2020 among employees of the above mentioned development institutions in the Vipavska valley and the region of Goriško, Western Slovenia.

Conference topic

Panel no. 15 - Coming of Age as Entrepreneurs: Biopolitics and Ethics of Youth in Modern-Day Economies

Preferred format

Oral



#348 Spray Paint, Sludge and Sautéed Onions: Smellscapes of New Belgrade

Sara Nikolić from RS (sara.nikolic@instifdt.bg.ac.rs) (Institute for Philosophy and Social Theory)



Abstract

Abstract title

Spray Paint, Sludge and Sautéed Onions: Smellscapes of New Belgrade

Abstract text

This paper examines olfactory perceptions and nostalgic memories, focusing on the dwelling experiences in large housing estates and deems sensory experiences collective and intersubjective. The focus on olfaction has been selected as smells possess the capacity to evoke home and childhood memories, and revive the images of the changes that occur extensively in the past decades in the researched large housing estates. The data is drawn from two consecutive methodological steps: exploratory online questionnaire responded by thirty residents of New Belgrade, and urban tours conducted individually with twenty participants, residents of selected socialist-era New Belgrade large housing estates (blok 22 and blok 45), who reflected on their everyday olfactory experiences and smell-evoked memories. The smell maps created by the systematization of data illustrate how shared olfactory perceptions and memories are made, evoked and enacted. Despite being perceived as subjective, collective olfactory experience in the neighbourhoods contributes to community building and joint engagement around urban and housing-related issues.

Conference topic

Panel no. 64 - Sensory Environmental Relationships - Between Memories of the Past and Imaginings of the Future

Preferred format

Oral



#349 The Culture of Migration and Amateur Athletic Mobility

Bernardo Ramirez Rios from US (brios@skidmore.edu) (Skidmore College)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Culture of Migration and Amateur Athletic Mobility

Abstract text

Many public health professionals regarded completing the 2019-2020 National Basketball Association (N.B.A) season as the most successful professional sports event during the COVID-19 pandemic. The complex orchestration of logistics and safety provided some players, coaches, and staff to participate in a shortened season. Still, numerous factors went into players' decision to migrate to the "bubble" in Orlando, Florida. Research on sports labor migration, the impact of globalization on sports development, and participation at the professional level are well documented; insights on the cultural practices that affect amateur athletes' decision to move or not-move offers an opportunity to build on existing models that examine human mobility. This paper uses ethnographic data to explore how amateur youth basketball players from the U.S. decide to travel and participate in an invitational tournament in Mexico. The analysis of cultural practices in transnational communities from Oaxaca, Mexico, is highlighted to explain the cultural heritage of basketball, the sporting experience of recent generations, and why the culture of migration impacts players' decision to play. Findings suggest that youth with familial ties to the sierra norte region of Oaxaca challenge presumed transnational indigenous and ethnic identity trajectories. Therefore, focus on the cultural practices of sporting communities provides insight into the humanistic experience that produces legacies that shape and are being shaped by the next generations.

Conference topic

Panel no. 12 - Anthropology of Sports in its Coming of Age

Preferred format

Oral



#350 National Intimacy and Humanitarian Reason: Ethnographic Fragment of Psychiatric Hospital Ugljan

Jelena Kupsjak from HR (jelena.kupsjak@gmail.com) (University of Zadar)



Abstract

Abstract title

National Intimacy and Humanitarian Reason: Ethnographic Fragment of Psychiatric Hospital Ugljan

Abstract text

“Unseen traffic collapse in Zadar, people are bringing tons of clothing for patients of Psychiatric hospital Ugljan” is just one of the headlines that made their way across Croatian media in December 2020. Traffic blockage event was the culmination of two different humanitarian initiatives started at the end of the pandemic year 2020 that tried to collect basic stuff like clothing, footwear, blankets, personal hygiene products and alike for patients under care in publicly (under)funded psychiatric hospital on the island of Ugljan in the heart of Dalmatia overlooking the city of Zadar. The initiative that collects donations for this institution was not the first one. In recent years Psychiatric hospital of Ugljan has been a subject of numerous humanitarian initiatives started by concerned citizens, employees and foreign NGOs. Drawing on ethnographic fragments of Psychiatric hospital Ugljan this paper talks about the construction of national intimacy (Berlant) and what Diddier Fassin calls “humanitarian reason” as part of neoliberal governmentality.

Conference topic

Panel no. 99 - National Intimacy Historical Present and Possibilities of New Imaginaries

Preferred format

Oral



#351 New Methods of Learning: Connecting Students and Educators Through Technology

David Homa from US (david@woz.org) (Los Gatos High School)



Abstract

Abstract title

New Methods of Learning: Connecting Students and Educators Through Technology

Abstract text

Learning from a professor while sitting in a classroom provides one format for acquiring knowledge. Technology expands not only what is learned but more importantly from whom students may learn. Connecting learners through technology will allow for the expansion of cross cultural learning in ways the classroom setting simply does not provide. Anthropology is the perfect field to help connect learners and teachers from around the world. Anthropology also provides a base from which to help build connections to bridge learners from different cultural contexts. There are a wide variety of ways to connect students and teachers to create mutually beneficial learning experiences. The current pandemic is forcing education to shift and expand how learning takes place. It is also showing the inequity in access to both learning and the technology needed to continue learning. How might anthropologists use the current disruption to build on what and how learning takes place? One example is the program Skype currently offers, Skype a Scientist. This program gives students and teachers the opportunity to speak directly with scientist in the classroom or even home. A program such as this could easily develop a section of anthropologists from all four field to offer their knowledge across the globe. It is time to shift the learning model from the traditional set time of the school day to a format that allows for students to learn from each other no matter where the student lives in the world.

Conference topic

Panel no. 41 - Technology: Teaching and Learning Anthropology Around the World

Preferred format

Oral



#353 Anthropology in Brazilian secondary education: increasing the notion of Brazilian citizenship

Rogéria Campos de Almeida Dutra from BR (campos.dutra@ufjf.edu.br) (Federal University of Juiz de Fora)



Abstract

Abstract title

Anthropology in Brazilian secondary education: increasing the notion of Brazilian citizenship

Abstract text

This presentation aims to contribute to the debate about anthropology teaching in the Brazilian high school system, highlighting the challenges presently posed to the implementation of anthropology classes. The teaching of social sciences in secondary school is part of a series of programs that have been implemented over the past eleven years in the context of the democratization process in Brazil. During this period, the many restrictions imposed by the reality of secondary education have hindered the effectiveness of this program, for example, low number of qualified professionals, reduced time to weekly classrooms and the imbalance of the curriculum content, with an emphasis on sociology to the detriment of anthropology and political science. In addition, neoliberal reforms as well as the new wave of conservatism have given rise to revisionist movements that question the role of education as a public good. Among these movements we have Homeschooling and Nonpartisan School, initiatives that are in the opposite direction to tolerance and construction of critical awareness of otherness. The presentation also addresses how anthropology has been taught, highlighting its contribution to the training of young people and adolescents in a society permeated by social diversity and inequality.

Conference topic

Panel no. 60 - Anthropology as Education. Exploring Practices and Opportunities to Employ Anthropology in the Formation of the Citizens and the Professionals of the Future

Preferred format

Oral



#354 Protective practices against COVID-19 among Amuzgos Nancue Ñomndaa from Guerrero, Mexico. Discussions from resilience.

Francisco Antonio Ramirez-Rojas from MX (f.ramirez_arq@ymail.com) (independent researcher) , Maria Guadalupe Ramirez-Rojas from MX (f.ramirez_arq@ymail.com) (CONACYT, CIESAS-Sureste)



Abstract

Abstract title

Protective practices against COVID-19 among Amuzgos Nancue Ñomndaa from Guerrero, Mexico. Discussions from resilience.

Abstract text

From several community workshops that were carried out in the Nancue Ñomndaa region of Amuzga, in the municipalities of Xochistlahuaca, Ometepec and Tlachoachistlahuaca in Guerrero, various problems that families faced in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic were highlighted, for What the analysis of how these aspects impacted on their lives, of how they faced the pandemic, as well as the description of practices described by families as protective of their health, is the central objective of this chapter. Derived from the work carried out in the workshops, as well as interviews with key actors in the Amuzga community, they allowed us to identify how the current pandemic has come to deconfigure the social and economic dynamics in the Nancue Ñomndaa Amuzgo region, and that reflected within family processes. It is in our interest to describe how the Amuzga families faced the pandemic with the support of protective practices, considering their belief system and worldviews that sustain them. In the discussion of this chapter, we rescued various problems that the Nancue Ñomndaa families faced, including both the community, economic and educational spheres as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conference topic

Panel no. 58 - Coming of Age for the Traditional Medicine System of Indigenous Populations: Is Connecting the Unconnected the Way Forward?

Preferred format

Oral



#355 The (re)production of hybrid urban space in the IoT era: The example of scooter sharing system in Taipei, Taiwan

Yi-Fan Liu from TW (yifan0828@gmail.com) (National Chengchi University)



Abstract

Abstract title

The (re)production of hybrid urban space in the IoT era: The example of scooter sharing system in Taipei, Taiwan

Abstract text

The moped sharing market has been growing year-on-year since its inception in 2012. In this trend, Taiwan is the third-ranked market by size globally since the first operator was launched in Taiwan in 2016. One distinguishing characteristic of the moped sharing system is that it connects smartphones and electric mopeds and makes them work together; anyone can't access the system without smartphones. It indicates that mobile media devices such as smartphones can be involved in human-machine and machine-machine interactions, making the Internet of Things (IoT) possible. This new communication/mobility style may transform urban space and people's temporal-spatial experiences in an entirely new fashion. Scholars have argued that mobile communication technologies create a new type of spatiality. Along with mobile media's proliferation, a new type of spatiality called "hybrid space" emerged, blurring the dichotomy between cyber and physical spaces. However, this concept concentrates on people's spatial experiences and limits information and communications technology infrastructure as material foundations that make hybrid space possible. This study argues that we should reconsider hybrid space's material aspect, as machine-machine interactions are gradually popular nowadays. In order to develop the concept more grounded in the IoT era, this study takes participant observation and in-depth interviews with moped sharing system operators and collective users in Taiwan to define the moped sharing systems as a part of the material aspect of hybrid urban space, and point out that the (re)definition of the operation zone, the (re)distribution of the moped network, and the whole system operations are all connected by operators and collective users via smartphones and mopeds in a specific social-spatial context. Hence this new mobility system triggers urban space ambiguities and possibilities for both the operator and general users to (re)understand and (re)build the hybrid urban space and the formation of everyday life.

Conference topic

Poster session

Preferred format

Poster



#356 Hair, cloths, and coca leaves: relational substances and life-forces in Northwestern Andean Argentina

Daniela Salvucci from IT (daniela.salvucci@unibz.it) (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano)



Abstract

Abstract title

Hair, cloths, and coca leaves: relational substances and life-forces in Northwestern Andean Argentina

Abstract text

Among the indigenous communities of shepherds and peasants in the Andean region of the Northwestern Argentina, a local culture of relatedness, one which includes both humans and non-humans, is produced and performed through ritual practices based on specific substances. These latter, such as the human hair and cloths, but also coca leaves, alcohol, and food, are conceived of as containing a life-force that enacts relationality and reciprocity. The presentation starts with an ethnographic analysis of these ritual practices of relatedness among kinship and family members, their animals, and the living entity of the Andean environment, called Pachamama-Mother Earth. On the one hand, it focuses on rituals of the body-person’s life-cycle, which are based on the human hair and cloths, such as the first baby’s haircut, called ruti or rupachico, and the second burial of a dead person. On the other hand, it reports on ritual offerings to the Pachamama and to the Dead that include coca leaves, alcohol, cigarettes, food, and animals’ bodily parts, which are buried to feed and relate to these non-human entities. Through these ethnographic examples, the presentation aims to discuss the epistemological value of the concept “substance”, one that has been so prominent in the Western philosophy as well as in several branches of sociocultural anthropology. Looking through the lens of local Andean practices and conceptions, specific substances are ritually performed and thought of as life-forces that produce relations and relatedness among people, animals and other non-human agents.

Conference topic

Panel no. 104 - Performing Substances, Transmitting Legacies

Preferred format

Oral



#357 Making the Other: Essentialism in images of South African traditionality

Andrew D Spiegel from ZA (mugsy.spiegel@uct.ac.za) (University of Cape Town)



Abstract

Abstract title

Making the Other: Essentialism in images of South African traditionality

Abstract text

Apartheid South Africa’s state used essentialist images of Black African people to justify the policy that its ideologues and civil servants alike called separate development. All too often, those images were presented as representations of Black African traditionality in a manner that was as much othering as it was denigratory. The images were used to demonstrate an alleged need for a distinctive bantustan – a separate political unit with its own exclusive land area and political jurisdiction – for each of the country’s so-called ethnic national groups, to govern through a divide-and-rule policy that sought to ensure that othering occurred also between those various ethnic national groups, and to explain why Black African people in general needed time to evolve culturally and politically before they might reach the same level of civilisation and development already achieved by the dominant white settler population. The paper illustrates those essentialist images whilst explaining how and why they were phrased as images of traditionality. It raises questions about the use generally of assertions of traditionality as means to construct essentialised distinctiveness.

Conference topic

Panel no. 81 - Essentialism in Deprecatory Expressions of the Other: Comparing Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Examples with Those of the Early 21st Century

Preferred format

Oral



#358 The Village on the Cliff

Avitoli G Zhimo from IN (agzhimo@anthro.du.ac.in) (University of Delhi)



Abstract

Abstract title

The Village on the Cliff

Abstract text

The film is an outcome of fieldwork conducted in Ze-mnui village (Manipur India) in the month of January 2020. Ze-mnui village is inhabited by the Zeme Naga. Their formerly headhunting motifs are carved on the gates of fortresses that surround the village from four corners. The four fortresses also represent the four khels (clans) of the village. The Village has many prohibitions for female - climbing the wall of the fortress, stepping on the bed in the male dormitory, touching the water in the sacred pond where boys undergo initiation rite, and also it is forbidden for women to enter the arena where men compete in long jump and wrestling. Despite prohibitions, women continue to cheer on from afar; for to them, it is natural and proper. The Zeme in this village follow Christianity and traditional religion Paupai Renet. There are tensions in the village but when the annual traditional festival comes, they leave aside their religious differences and celebrate together. It was observed women were more of 'muted group', but that does not deter them from being the backbone of the family. Men may display their sheer masculinity through sports and other ceremonial activities but in the domestic space, they shoulder parenting duties. The film introduces the village through visuals without narration. The importance of male dormitory, the marriage rituals that precede the annual festival, the rodi event that marks the agility of male members have been elucidated.

Conference topic

Ethnographic film session

Preferred format

Film



#359 Why so serious? How anthropology can bring pleasure back to class?

Leonardo Carbonieri Campoy from BR (leocampoy@gmail.com) (PUC-PR) , Fagner Carniel from BR (fagnercarniel@yahoo.com.br) (UEM)



Abstract

Abstract title

Why so serious? How anthropology can bring pleasure back to class?

Abstract text

Our experiences as former high school teachers and, currently, university ones, suggest that, in Brazil, the school has not been able to mobilize students' subjectivities for learning. Youngsters are still going to school, for several reasons, but knowledge itself does not seem to be one of them. The impression is that with each passing year, the people that come to us as students seem to be enthusiastic about all aspects of school life, except for the classes themselves. What would anthropology have to teach us about what seems to be a kind of boredom that hangs over school education and accentuates the many educational crises of our time? More than the ethnographic diagnosis of the obsolescence of a machinery that has been losing a significant part of the social trust that gave it status and credibility over the last century, we seek to reflect in this communication on the possibilities of imagining an anthropology that is pedagogically oriented to bring pleasure to classrooms. We go over some of our experiences with teaching anthropology in teacher training courses in Brazil to argue in favor of the potential role that anthropology as pedagogy can play in the development of sensitivities, engagements, creativity and attention that contribute to the appearance of other meanings and skills in school spaces. Therefore, it is essential to invert the modern relationship between school and student: instead of the institution forming the youngsters, to propose that the new generations translate and practice the school in their own terms.

Conference topic

Panel no. 54 - What Can Anthropology Offer and What Can It Receive from the New Generations? How to Set up a Bottom-Up Teaching and a Bidirectional Relationship

Preferred format

Oral



#360 Kinbank: A global database of kinship terminology

Sam Passmore from GB (sam.passmore@bristol.ac.uk) (University of Bristol) , Kyla Quinn from AU (sam.passmore@bristol.ac.uk) (Australian National University) , Catherine Sheard from GB (sam.passmore@bristol.ac.uk) (University of Bristol) , Wolfgang Barth from AU (sam.passmore@bristol.ac.uk) (Australian National University) , Luis Henrique Oliveira from DE (sam.passmore@bristol.ac.uk) (Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi) , Joshua Birchall from AU (sam.passmore@bristol.ac.uk) (Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi) , Simon J Greenhill from GB (sam.passmore@bristol.ac.uk) (MPI for the Science of Human history) , Nicholas D Evans from AU (sam.passmore@bristol.ac.uk) (Australian National University) , Fiona M Jordan from GB (sam.passmore@bristol.ac.uk) (University of Bristol)



Abstract

Abstract title

Kinbank: A global database of kinship terminology

Abstract text

Kinship terminology has a deep history in anthropology and linguistics, and as a result, kinship terminology is well-documented in the anthropological record. Some of these sources, over time, have been collated into private paper-based or boutique online collections. Collections are often structured for specific analytic or theoretical purposes, leading to low accessibility and re-usability for kinship scholars. However in recent years, over-arching systematicity and open access has become a new standard for cross-linguistic data, tying widespread documentation together to unlock the wealth of data. Kinbank is a new digitised database containing 1,151 kinship terminologies across the globe, with a sample that is both globally representative and phylogenetically rich, due to the collaborative nature of the project. The goal of this database is to deliver an extensible resource for kinship terminology, contributing to the revival of interest in this omnipresent cross-cultural domain through open access and transparent data provenance. By digitising and standardising terminology data-structure, we also provide a digital source straightforwardly amenable to quantitative analysis and not restricted to any software platform. We exemplify the breadth and depth of Kinbank with two examples: (1) investigating the phonological structure of "nursery words" (mother and father terms) to show strong gender bias in a global sample of 1,022 languages, and (2) linking Kinbank to existing anthropological databases to show no evidence for a relationship between cross-cousin marriage and bifurcate-merging terminology in a sample of phylogenetically-controlled Bantu languages.

Conference topic

Panel no. 53 - The Human Legacy of Kinship

Preferred format

Oral



#361 Harming by Interviewing. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas of In-deep Interviews 

Robert Rydzewski from PL (rydzewski.robert@gmail.com) (University of Rzeszow) , Izabela Wagner from PL (izabela.wagner@gmail.com) (Collegium Civitas)



Abstract

Abstract title

Harming by Interviewing. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas of In-deep Interviews 

Abstract text

The need to expand the knowledge on the people who experienced deportation or are often being in constant threat of deportation, provokes two different undesirable effects: 1) unintentional exposure to the exploitation of the interviewees; 2) damaging of research practices. E.g: in-deep interviews with victims of violence, long term confinement and other forms of abuse, in the situation of high legal and existential uncertainty, caused the mental strain and stress, which is a harmful practice. Finally, the needs for securing the interviewees' situation and increasing the possibility of getting permission to stay, influence the quality of collected data (false or partial information).  In this article we want to explore the methodological and ethical dilemmas that unfolds while carrying out in-depth or biographical interviews with persons who are in constant danger of being deported or have already experienced deportation. We argue that researchers by making them relive their traumatic experiences and thus loading them with often extreme emotional and psychological weight, can harm the interviewee. We urge to rethink the research methods used to obtain information from people in exile- requesting their permission to live in Europe. Furthermore, we emphasize the need for a better academic preparation to work among vulnerable groups.

Conference topic

Panel no. 108 - Refuge Refugees and Forced Migration

Preferred format

Oral